The First Scandi Drama: The Vikings Invented the Soap Opera and Were Pioneers of Globalisation. A New Exhibition Shows How Closely Their World Mirrors Ours

By Hutton, Ronald | New Statesman (1996), February 21, 2014 | Go to article overview

The First Scandi Drama: The Vikings Invented the Soap Opera and Were Pioneers of Globalisation. A New Exhibition Shows How Closely Their World Mirrors Ours


Hutton, Ronald, New Statesman (1996)


The Vikings are returning to the nation's public attention with the opening of a major exhibition at the British Museum, "Vikings: Life and Legend", and the simultaneous publication of Philip Parker's history of the Viking world, The Northmen's Fury. These are the latest developments in a relationship that has long been ambivalent--and especially so since the Victorian era.

On the one hand, the Vikings are part of us, because they settled in areas of Britain so densely and so permanently. Anyone who lives somewhere with a name ending in "-by" (or a headland with one ending in cness 19 or calls their valley a "clale", or the nearest hillside a "fell") is living in a landscape that Vikings named, while our language is peppered with their words: "niggardly", for example, is derived from the Old Norse for "miser".

To the 19th-century British, the Vikings could seem like kindred spirits. These early-medieval Scandinavians were, like the Victorians, the greatest sailors, traders and explorers of their day. They embodied courage, enterprise and that most prized of public school virtues: manliness.

Their achievements were extraordinary. Between the 8th and izth centuries ("the Viking age"), they became the first people to operate simultaneously in four continents and so tie much of the world together. They were the first Europeans to cross the Atlantic and reach North America (which they called "Vinland"); they settled in Iceland (permanently), Greenland (for centuries) and Newfoundland (briefly).

In the other direction, they founded the first Russian state, based in Kiev, while a

Vikings: Life and Legend

British Museum, London WO1

body of them made up the personal guard of the Byzantine emperors at Constantinople. Becoming the paramount power in the British Isles, they gave Ireland its first towns, including Dublin, while their fleets penetrated as far south as the Mediterranean and the coasts of North Africa. Occupying a slice of France, they founded the Duchy of Normandy and, reinvented as Normans, proceeded to conquer England, Sicily and parts of Italy, Wales, Ireland and Syria. It is this tremendous story that Philip Parker's book retells.

On the other hand, the Vikings were also the people against whom the British nations initially defined themselves. The early English had developed a sense of themselves as a people, with a language and as followers of a branch of the Church, but they were divided into different kingdoms. It took the prospect of conquest by Viking warlords to forge them into a single kingdom--one of the most intensely governed in the world--and this achievement became part of the country's epic story. King Alfred became "the Great" by organising the national resistance to the Vikings. Though they came back a century later under Cnut and triumphed, by that time England was too strongly wrought to break: the Danish conquerors took it over intact and handed it, peacefully, back to native rule when Cnut's dynasty died out.

Scotland was also a product of the Viking menace, as Picts and Scots joined forces against the invaders. The battle of Largs in 1263, an episode in the last attempt by a Norwegian king to assert control over the western Scottish seaboard, later became one of the milestones on the road to Scotland's development as a nation. Followed as it was by the addition of the Hebrides to the Scottish realm, it eventually became the nautical equivalent of Bannockburn in Scotland's historical imagination.

Above all, Vikings were not just viewed by the early-medieval British as enemies but as enemies of an especially dreadful kind: the epitome of barbarism and heathendom. All of historians' source material for their early impact on Britain was written by the victims, who emphasised the wanton lack of restraint with which the Vikings plundered Christian churches and killed their clergy and the cruelty with which they ravaged settlements and farms. …

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