A Thai Version of Mindfulness Questionnaire: Srithanya Sati Scale

By Silpakit, Orawan; Silpakit, Chatchawan | East Asian Archives of Psychiatry, March 2014 | Go to article overview

A Thai Version of Mindfulness Questionnaire: Srithanya Sati Scale


Silpakit, Orawan, Silpakit, Chatchawan, East Asian Archives of Psychiatry


Introduction

The concept of mindfulness in Thailand traditionally follows the Noble Truth and the Three Characteristics of Theravada Buddhism (impermanence, suffering, and not self). (1-3) There are only few studies on the application of mindfulness meditation in daily life for patients with psychiatric disorders, and none of these studies directly measures the state of mindfulness. (4,5) Therefore, the association between mindfulness skills and clinical outcomes was not empirically demonstrated. To examine this, direct measure of mindfulness skills is imperative. Currently, mindfulness assessment instruments are based on western psychology and cultures. (6,7) Data showed that the stability of the construct of mindfulness across cultures is inconclusive, with reported findings being in support of and against the construct. Christopher et al (1) explored the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) among Thai and American students. They concluded that there was a significant difference in the concept of mindfulness between the cultures. (1) Recently, Cardaciotto et al (7) developed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS) consisting of the dimensions of awareness and acceptance. This scale has been translated into Thai (PHLMS-Th) and its psychometric properties have been tested in highly educated hospital staff. The results showed that the Thai version had similar factor loadings as the original version. (8) We also found that some items of the acceptance domain of PHLMS-Th were difficult to comprehend, especially among people who had never undertaken formal learning in mindfulness. These findings suggest that a culturally specific instrument may be needed. This study aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring the state of mindfulness among people with different meditation experiences in the context of the Thai culture and concept of Satipatthana (foundations for or the presence of mindfulness in the Buddhist tradition). (3,9)

Methods

Two steps, namely, item generation and psychometric property study, were carried out from June to September 2012. The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of Srithanya Hospital, Thailand.

Item Generation and Selection

To obtain the operational definition of mindfulness in the Thai context, we interviewed 2 psychiatrists who had experiences with mindfulness for > 5 years, as well as a meditation teacher. We concluded that mindfulness contained 3 aspects, namely awareness of body; awareness of thought and feeling; and self-recollection. Five items were derived from 3 meditation experts. Of these, 2 were on awareness of thought and 3 on self-recollection. For awareness of body and feelings, 5 items of the PHLMS-Th, indicated by the meditation teacher and having factor loading values of > 0.6 from a previous study,8 were adopted. The first draft consisted of 10 items.

Ten mental health experts with meditation experience reviewed the first draft and compared it with MAAS and PHLMS-Th. All of them agreed on the 10 items and suggested addition of items concerning body movement and body sensation. Thus, we added 4 more items on body sensation and movement. To test the face validity, the 14-item questionnaire was sent to 18 mental health experts with more than 15 years' experience. They were invited to rate the appropriateness of each item on the 5-point Likert scale (1 = very poor to 5 = very good). Responses from 2 experts were discarded due to incompleteness. Items which were rated > 3 by at least 13 of 16 experts were retained. No item was discarded by this criterion. The final version was named Srithanya Sati Scale (SSS) consisting of 3 subscales, namely awareness (SSS_aw) [items 1-6], acceptance (SSS_ac) [items 7-9], and self-recollection (SSS_se) [items 10-14].

Sample

A total of 466 from 500 copies of questionnaires were collected. Among these, 192 were participants of a mindfulness course (PT group), 175 were medical students (ST group), 48 hospital staff, 29 Buddhist monks, and 22 medical staff. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Thai Version of Mindfulness Questionnaire: Srithanya Sati Scale
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.