Body Knowledge and Motor Skills

By Raiola, Gaetano | Knowledge Cultures, November 2013 | Go to article overview

Body Knowledge and Motor Skills


Raiola, Gaetano, Knowledge Cultures


1. Learning Approach

In some teaching methods of physical activities there is a wide use of tutorials that have their theoretical basis in the cognitive approach. The tutorials are illustrated in greater detail and the error correction is made by the coach with verbal rules. The tutorials are of Partial, Varied, Randomized and Mental Training type. They refer to the models of Open-Loop Motor Control, Closed-Loop Motor Control, and Generalized Motor Program. The partial tutorial consists in executing the motor performance of complex skills in a simplified form. This is to solve the problem of movements with a certain degree of difficulty, or very complex, that can be so simplified by dividing the exercises or reducing the speed or requests for precision. For all forms of partial tutorial the rule is to reach the learning of the motor performance techniques through the process of learning segmentation and simplification. In this way the structure of the Generalized Motor Program is deepened.

The randomized tutorial and the varied one are other techniques of tutorials that find their justification in generalized engine program theories. The theory of the motor programs has generalized methodological and didactic implications on direct choice of which it provides information in the feedback.

This choice depends on the type of error made by the athlete/student. The techniques of mental repetition consist in thinking about the cognitive and procedural aspects of the action, while the mental representation is to imagine the conduct of an action. Among motor activities teaching methods there is also the Ecological Dynamics approach, where the coach does not require the tutorials but builds a setting of learning environment aimed at a variety of learning methods. It refers to the models for the control of the imagination and mobility and to the theory of the degrees of freedom in three consecutive steps for learning impairment: Reduction, Exploration and Capitalisation of the degrees of freedom. According to the ecological approach "learning" means being able to find progressively the best mobility solution for a given task in a given context. Emblematic is the phrase coined by Bernstein, "repetition without repetition:" practice does not mean always repeating the same solution to a given task, but repeating over again the process of solving the task itself.

If learning movements means optimizing the process of solving tasks engines, resulting didactic implications different from those prescriptive own cognitive approach. In heuristic learning the teacher must assist the student in researching autonomous mobility solutions. If the learning tasks are too complex, you should not impose constraints to the learner in telling him how to prescriptively simplify the implementation mobility, but you must apply constraints to the environment.

The aim is to study the issue of body knowledge by motor control theory and its relation to motor skills. To work by elaboration of specific aspects, it uses an integrated method that joins, on the one hand, a historical and documentary approach to describe the evolutionary steps, particularly on theoretical paradigms, on didactics and on motor learning. On the other hand, it uses an argumentative deductive approach to talk about new discoveries, motor control and learning.

2. Applied Knowledge for the Teaching-Learning Relationship

It analyses the current state of the affair of how and why the body and movement are central in the motor skills, through methodological and didactic choices in teaching activities at whose foundation there is scientific evidence. "Conceptual knowledge is embodied, that is mapped in our sensorymotor system. This not just provides the structure to the conceptual content, but characterizes the semantic content of concepts according to the way we function in the world with our bodies" (Gallese & Lakoff, 2005). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Body Knowledge and Motor Skills
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.