How Students with Visual Impairments Can Learn Components of the Expanded Core Curriculum through Physical Education

By Lieberman, Lauren J.; Haegele, Justin A. et al. | Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, May-June 2014 | Go to article overview

How Students with Visual Impairments Can Learn Components of the Expanded Core Curriculum through Physical Education


Lieberman, Lauren J., Haegele, Justin A., Columna, Luis, Conroy, Paula, Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness


Research indicates that children with visual impairments demonstrate delays in fundamental motor skills, including locomotor, object control, and balance skills (Haibach, Lieberman, & Pritchett, 2011; Houwen, Hartman, & Visscher, 2010; Wagner, Haibach, & Lieberman, 2013). All of these skills are prerequisites to living an independent and successful life. It has been demonstrated that motor activity and balance programs show that significant improvements in these areas are possible (Aki, Turan, & Kayihan, 2007; Jazi, Purrajabi, Movahedi, & Jalali, 2012).

Through quality physical education programs, students with visual impairments can develop the fundamental skills needed to maintain a physically active and healthy lifestyle. According to the IDEIA (2004), physical education is required for all students who qualify for special education. Acquiring skills and engaging in physical activity can increase many important life skills, including components of the expanded core curriculum (ECC).

The field of education has instituted a curricular approach to ensure that children with visual impairments receive the education they need in addition to their core courses. The goal of this approach, the ECC (Sapp & Hatlen, 2010), is for children with visual impairments to leave school with the necessary skills to be independent and self-determined adults. Physical education programs can contribute significantly to instruction of the nine components of the ECC if implemented correctly (Sapp & Hatlen, 2010). Physical education teachers who include meaningful physical activity opportunities in their classes can address recreation as well as all of the other areas, including social skills, orientation and mobility (O&M), self-determination, technology, activities of daily living, and independence (Sapp & Hatlen, 2010). The purpose of the article presented here is to discuss ways in which physical education can contribute to the ECC. It must be understood that in order for physical education teachers to be able to infuse ECC components into physical education classes, it is imperative for them to work in collaboration with other professionals, such as teachers of students with visual impairments and O&M instructors. Teachers of students with visual impairments need to provide access to the curriculum in general education classes, teach ECC areas, and collaborate with physical education teachers. Therefore, it is the intent of this article to provide suggestions to administrators, teachers of students with visual impairments, O&M instructors, and physical education teachers on how to work together to teach the ECC curriculum in all areas of their schools. The article presented here will provide strategies that will foster collaboration among these professionals when teaching the ECC curriculum.

COMPONENTS OF THE ECC

The ECC provides an instructional framework for students with visual impairments to be successful in school, the community, and the workplace (Sapp & Hatlen, 2010). The components of the ECC are typically learned incidentally by sighted children through observing role models visually (Lohmeier, Blankenship, & Hatlen, 2009). Students who have significant visual impairments must be taught these components with direct instruction. These components are: (1) compensatory or access skills, (2) O&M skills, (3) social interaction skills, (4) independent living skills, (5) recreational and leisure skills, (6) career education, (7) use of assistive technology, (8) sensory efficiency skills, and (9) self-determination skills.

According to Sapp and Hatlen (2010), ECC components should be taught by certified teachers of students with visual impairments and O&M specialists. Yet teachers of students with visual impairments spend the majority of their time on academics, teaching communication skills, and tutoring (Wolffe et al., 2002). Further, the level and amount of instructional time spent on ECC components are not as intense as one may anticipate (Wolffe et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

How Students with Visual Impairments Can Learn Components of the Expanded Core Curriculum through Physical Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.