Neural Correlates of Emotion: Acquisition versus Innate View Point

By Reddy, Rajakumari; Korde, Sakshi et al. | Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, October-December 2014 | Go to article overview

Neural Correlates of Emotion: Acquisition versus Innate View Point


Reddy, Rajakumari, Korde, Sakshi, Kanungo, Silpa, Thamodharan, A., Rajeswaran, Jamuna, Bharath, Rose, Upadhya, Neeraj, Panda, Rajanikanth, Rao, Shobini, Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine


Byline: Rajakumari. Reddy, Sakshi. Korde, Silpa. Kanungo, A. Thamodharan, Jamuna. Rajeswaran, Rose. Bharath, Neeraj. Upadhya, Rajanikanth. Panda, Shobini. Rao

Background: Emotion entails cognitive processes that may either be conscious or unconscious. Emotions influence all aspects of cognition. Aim: The aim of the following study was to study the effect of education on neural correlates of emotions in healthy normal volunteers. Materials and Methods: Sample consisted total of 61 healthy young educated adults in the age range of 18-40 years. The volunteers were asked to view neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures from international affective picture system in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Statistics Analysis: Rest-active block design paradigm, functional MRI results analyzed in statistical parametric mapping 8. Results and Conclusion: Activations associated with emotions were present in cerebral and cerebellar regions. Education influences emotion.

Introduction

Emotion is an expression of a basic mechanism of life regulation developed in evolution and is indispensable for survival. It consists of behaviors, physiologic changes and subjective experiences as evoked by thoughts or external events, particularly those that are perceived as important. [sup][1] Theories describe, emotion as a complex psychophysiological experience of an individual's state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences. It is described that in humans, emotion fundamentally involves "physiological arousal, expressive behaviors and conscious experience." [sup][2] There are four important theories of emotion. They are called the James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard theory, Schachter-Singer theory and opponent process theory of emotion. According to James-Lange theory emotion is experienced when the organism becomes aware of visceral and somatic changes induced by some event. [sup][3] Few years later, the Cannon-Bard thalamic theory proposed that emotions result from concurrent brainstem and cortical events, in which the impulses that are released to the autonomic nervous system produce the emotional behavior [sup][4] Following which the Schachter and Singer [sup][5] theory came. They proposed that emotions and emotional behavior is produced as a result of information from two systems: The internal state regulated by the hypothalamus and the limbic system and the external environment or context in which the internal state occurs. The opponent-process theory of emotion, [sup][6] suggest that the experience of an emotion disrupts the body's state of balance and that our basic emotions typically have their opposing counterparts. Contemporary theories of emotion emphasis on cognitive processing, [sup][7] cognitive appraisal. [sup][8] Proponents of understanding the stimuli of the emotions has proposed multi-level theories. The thalamus-amygdala circuit has a role in to respond rapidly in threatening situations and thus can be valuable in ensuring the survival. In contrast, the cortical circuit has been implicated in producing a detailed evaluation of the emotional significance of the situation which allows responding to situations in the most appropriate fashion. [sup][9] Power et al . [sup][10] put forward a Schematic Propositional Associative and Analogical Representational Systems (Power et al ., 2000) approach. According to which there are two main ways in which emotion can occur as a result of thorough cognitive processing when the schematic system is involved or it occurs automatically and without the involvement of conscious processing when the associative system is involved. The network theory [sup][11] is based on the assumptions that the emotions are units or nodes in a semantic network, with numerous connections to related ideas, to physiological systems, to events and to muscular and expressive patterns. Zinck and Newen, in 2008 [sup][12] have described four classes of emotions. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Neural Correlates of Emotion: Acquisition versus Innate View Point
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.