Precognitive Dreaming: Investigating Anomalous Cognition and Psychological Factors/ Prakognitives Traumen: Zur Untersuchung Anomaler Kognition Und Psychologischer Faktoren/ Sueno Premonitorios: Investigacion De la Cognicion Anomala Y Los Factores Psicologicos/ Reverie Precognitive : Recherche Sur la Cognition Anomale et Les Facteurs Psychologiques

By Watt, Caroline | The Journal of Parapsychology, Spring 2014 | Go to article overview

Precognitive Dreaming: Investigating Anomalous Cognition and Psychological Factors/ Prakognitives Traumen: Zur Untersuchung Anomaler Kognition Und Psychologischer Faktoren/ Sueno Premonitorios: Investigacion De la Cognicion Anomala Y Los Factores Psicologicos/ Reverie Precognitive : Recherche Sur la Cognition Anomale et Les Facteurs Psychologiques


Watt, Caroline, The Journal of Parapsychology


Surveys of the general population show that reports of psi-related experiences such as apparent clairvoyance, telepathy, and precognition are common throughout the world. For example, a 1987 survey published by the University of Chicago's National Opinion Research Center canvassed nearly 1,500 adult Americans, of whom 67% claimed psi-related experiences (Greeley, 1987). Precognition--seemingly knowing about an event that has yet to take place--was reported by approximately one third of respondents in a recent survey of 1,000 Britons (Pechey & Halligan, 2012).

Dreams seem to play a particularly important role in precognitive experiences. A review of the various surveys of spontaneous GESP experiences concludes that, if only precognitive cases are considered, around 60% involve dreams, with a further 10% involving "borderland" states (Van de Castle, 1977). Therefore, the vast majority of spontaneous precognitive experiences involve dreams or sleep-related states. Death is a predominant theme in precognitive dreams, followed by accident and injury; percipients are predominantly female (e.g., Green, 1960; Saltmarsh, 1934), although reporting bias may account for both of these trends.

When considering possible explanations for spontaneous paranormal experiences, researchers often either consider a paranormal interpretation, or one of several possible psychological explanations, although these are not mutually exclusive categories. Researchers tend to turn to controlled laboratory settings to test the psi hypothesis. Only a minority of laboratory dream ESP studies have investigated precognition, which is perhaps odd given the prevalence with which spontaneous dream precognition experiences are reported. Controlled laboratory studies of dream ESP took off from 1962, after psychiatrist Montague Ullman established a dream laboratory at the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York (Krippner, 1993; Ullman et al., 1973, 1989). Thirteen formal dream

ESP studies (11 telepathy, 2 precognition) were conducted at the lab before it closed in 1978, the majority of which obtained medium to large positive effect sizes (Sherwood & Roe, 2003). A review of the 21 post-Maimonides dream ESP studies identified that, for the majority of them, the research environment had moved from the relatively expensive and time-consuming sleep laboratory to participants' own homes (Sherwood & Roe, 2003). The studies had a modest combined effect size (r = .14)--significantly less than for the Maimonides studies, but still regarded as "successful" by Sherwood and Roe, who expressed the hope that dream ESP research would be "re-awakened."

Turning to possible psychological factors underlying paranormal experiences, Blackmore and Moore (1994) proposed that paranormal believers and disbelievers might have different cognitive styles. They tested this idea by presenting participants with ambiguous pictures and found that believers guessed the identity of the picture earlier than disbelievers, though the believers were more often incorrect in these guesses. In this study, therefore, believers tended to rapidly evaluate the ambiguous stimuli and, compared to disbelievers, set a lower criterion for identifying these patterns. This propensity seems related to intolerance of ambiguity, which is conceptualised as a form of premature closure achieved through a tendency to resort to clear-cut solutions in ambiguous situations (Frenkel-Brunswick, 1949). Houran and Williams (1998) explored the relation between ambiguity tolerance and specific paranormal experiences using Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher's (1994) Anomalous Experiences Inventory and MacDonald's (1970) Ambiguity Tolerance scale. They reported that there was a small but positive correlation between experiences involving internal or physiological experiences, such as precognitive dreams, visual apparitions, and out-of-body experiences, and tolerance for ambiguity. This finding seems to be inconsistent with Blackmore and Moore's (1994) conclusion, leading Houran and Williams (1998) to suggest that variability in the measures used across different studies may contribute to the equivocal association between ambiguity tolerance and paranormal beliefs and experiences. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Precognitive Dreaming: Investigating Anomalous Cognition and Psychological Factors/ Prakognitives Traumen: Zur Untersuchung Anomaler Kognition Und Psychologischer Faktoren/ Sueno Premonitorios: Investigacion De la Cognicion Anomala Y Los Factores Psicologicos/ Reverie Precognitive : Recherche Sur la Cognition Anomale et Les Facteurs Psychologiques
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.