Constraints Facing the Development of Rural Women in Kedallo Area, Blue Nile State, Sudan

By Rahim, Shadia Abdel; Musa, Rehab Ahmed | Ahfad Journal, June 2011 | Go to article overview

Constraints Facing the Development of Rural Women in Kedallo Area, Blue Nile State, Sudan


Rahim, Shadia Abdel, Musa, Rehab Ahmed, Ahfad Journal


Introduction

The Blue Nile State is one of the three areas identified under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) as a transitional area subject to a special protocol. The population of the state is estimated at 832,112 (Sudan Census, 2008) with an annual growth rate of 3 percent .The average family size is 5 persons and an average population density of 21person/[km.sup.2]; while 74.3 percent of the population are rural making their living either as small farmers or as seasonal labourers in large mechanized schemes. Livestock raising, traditional gold mining and trading are also common activities (UNDP, 2010). The Ministry of Social Welfare (2007) described the conditions in the Kedallo area as follows:

   The Kedallo area is characterized by poverty and
   remoteness. It is located east and southeast of the
   Roseries locality and is bordering Ethiopia from the
   east. Women in Kedallo area like other women of the
   Blue Nile State are generally regarded as subordinate to
   their male counterparts. Have less voice, less
   autonomy, fewer opportunities and lowered self esteem
   (pp. 45-46).

All these are aggravated by a very high rate of illiteracy among women (Ministry of Education 2007). Values and traditions that are generally do not work for the benefit of women are revealed in a state that deprivations and suffering they face were not fully taken into account, and the significant contribution they make to household was undervalued.

The total number of the population Kedallo region is about 13128 citizens. Particularly, Abu Gadaf is populated by 1250 and Mukla about 450 persons.

This study aims to examine the following parameters that contribute to the constraints facing the development of rural women in Kedallo area:

* Situation of Kedallo area

* Socio demographic status of the Kedallo women

* Work load and gender division of labour.

Method

Two villages (Abu Gadaf and Mukla) out of nine were selected in the Kedallo area of Rosaries using simple random sampling method. From each village 25 women were selected for interviews. In addition, 10 local leaders were interviewed to collect information about the Kedallo area in general. The study used interview methods with women and semi structured interview with local leaders. Group discussion was also conducted with women to collect data on gender division of labour. Data analysis involved the generation of frequency and percentage distribution tables.

Results and discussion

This section of the article is divided into five parts. Part one includes an analysis of the situation in Kedallo area. Part two describes the socio economic status of women in the selected two villages. Part three discusses the constraints facing women, based on the analysis of situation of Kedallo area and the women's socio economic status. Part four includes concluding remarks, and the last part provides relevant recommendations.

Situation of Kedallo area

The area and local population characteristics

Kedallo occupies about 20 percent and located east and south east of the Rosaries area, bordering Ethiopia from the east. According to the local leaders, the name of Kedallo comes from the word (Kodul) which refers to a hill in the Abu Gadaf village. The civil administration hierarchy in Kedallo area is composed of the Umda (the highest local authority), the Sheikhs (the villages' chief) and the Arabeeb (the village most respected elders).

Kedallo tribe is the major ethnic group in the area which also accommodates other groups from different ethnic origins. Arab and Felata Mbararro (Fulani) nomadic groups move through the area following their cattle along annual migration routes. According to Ministry of Finance (2008), the total number of the population in the area is composed of about thirteen thousand individuals residing in nine villages. …

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