Rise of Civil Rights Icon; ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Daily Mail (London), July 16, 2015 | Go to article overview

Rise of Civil Rights Icon; ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS


Byline: Compiled by CHARLES LEGGE

QUESTION

Rosa Parks is often portrayed as an accidental figure in the civil rights movement. Is this view incorrect?

THE bus boycott, in which African-Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest against segregated seating, took place between December 5, 1955, and December 20, 1956.

It is seen as the first large demonstration against segregation in the US.

This famous act of defiance was sparked by Rosa Parks (1913-2005), an African-American arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person.

Most descriptions suggest Parks was an ordinary woman, simply worn down by years of racism.

Great African Americans In Civil Rights by Pat Rediger says: 'On that famous day when she was arrested, it would have been much easier for Rosa to give up her seat. Three other black women (actually two women and a man) who were sitting beside her did.

She could have avoided being arrested, fingerprinted and sent to jail. But Rosa was tired. Her back was sore from pressing pants all day at work and she was tired of racism.' The story was more complex: Rosa Parks was already involved in the civil rights movement and in 1943 had been elected secretary of the Montgomery The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP). As part of her duties, she travelled around the South documenting and investigating sexual crimes against black women.

In March 1955, 15-year-old Claudette Colvin refused to give up her bus seat to a white person. She was dragged off the bus and arrested but, as an unmarried teen mother, wasn't considered suitable to front the movement against bus segregation.

When Rosa Parks was arrested for a refusing to give up her seat, she immediately called prominent black leader E D Nixon (1899-1987). He bailed her out of jail and determined that she would be a sympathetic plaintiff in a legal challenge to the segregation ordinance.

The Women's Political Council (WPC) circulated thousands of flyers calling for a boycott of the bus system on December 5, the day Parks would be tried. Black ministers including Martin Luther King, announced the boycott in church on Sunday, December 4, and the Montgomery Advertiser published a front-page article on the planned action.

About 40,000 African-American bus passengers - the majority of the city's black bus users - joined the boycott the following day.

Caroline Connor, St Andrews, Fife.

QUESTION

What happened to the Barman's Trade Union, which operated from Banba House, Parnell Square, Dublin 1, in the 1970s?

They did not approve of pubs employing female bar staff. How was it wound up?

THE Barmen's Union, an all-male enclave, had a colourful existence until it merged with another union to form the present day Mandate trade union in 1984.

Its full title was long winded: the Irish National Union of Vintners, Grocers and Allied Trades' Assistants, which was always known in Dublin parlance as the 'Barmen's Union'. The union was founded in 1917 as a breakaway from the Manchester-based National Amalgamated Union of Shop Assistants.

By 1920, the Dublin-based union, based at Parnell Square, had 2,500 members, but by 1970, that number had increased to 4,278. It was a militant union from the start; in 1920, it staged a ten-week long strike for better pay, which was partially successful. Two further strikes for more pay took place during the 1920s.

It was also behind the world's longest-running strike. In February, 1939, a man called James Downey, who owned a pub of the same name in Upper George's Street, Dun Laoghaire, sacked a senior barman, Patrick Young, as part of his plan to deunionise the pub. The Barmen's Union wanted the unfortunate barman to be reinstated, but Downey, the pub owner, was adamant he wouldn't. Instead, he advertised for four new barmen and got 400 applications. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Rise of Civil Rights Icon; ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.