POPs and Gut Microbiota: Dietary Exposure Alters Ratio of Bacterial Species

By Potera, Carol | Environmental Health Perspectives, July 2015 | Go to article overview

POPs and Gut Microbiota: Dietary Exposure Alters Ratio of Bacterial Species


Potera, Carol, Environmental Health Perspectives


Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in myriad human health problems, including cancer, neurologic, immunologic, and reproductive defects, among many other adverse health effects. (1) New lines of research suggest that chronic dietary exposure to POPs may also contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. (2) In this issue of EHP, researchers examine how one POP in particular-2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF)-affects the composition of the mouse gut microbiome. (3) They report that TCDF exposure alters the gut microbiome in ways that may prove to contribute to obesity and other metabolic diseases.

TCDF binds the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which activates a variety of biological responses. (1) Recent studies indicate that keeping the gut in good working order is one of these functions. (4)

The gut microbiome is increasingly being recognized as influential in multiple aspects of health. "We've been focused on how POPs impact the host. Now we're starting to see how these chemicals may impact the gut bacteria, either positively or negatively," says study leader Andrew Patterson, an assistant professor of molecular toxicology at Pennsylvania State University.

For five days, Patterson's team fed food pellets spiked with 24 pg/kg TCDF to adult male mice that either carried or lacked the AhR gene. This helped to confirm that the AHR truly is involved in regulating the end points measured, including fluctuations in gut microbe populations, liver enzymes, and bile acids.

Mice that lacked the AhR gene underwent marked changes in their gut microbial populations, with a decrease in Firmicutes species and an increase in Bacteroides species. These changes were associated with significantly increased levels of bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, altered liver function, increased intestinal inflammation, and inhibited signaling of the farnesoid X receptor, a key regulator of fat and glucose metabolism. (3)

The mice received a very high dose of TCDF, equivalent to 3,000 ng/kg in people. (3) That's about 1,000 times more than most adults are thought to ingest each day through food (5) but in the range of high-dose industrial exposures. (6) The researchers chose this high dose to ensure they would find observable changes and end points to pursue further. Now they're feeding mice lower chronic doses of TCDF, and according to Patterson, preliminary data are showing similar changes as those seen at higher TCDF doses.

Patterson's results "show significant changes in the gut microbiome profile after TCDF administration, and they raise very interesting and important questions. But exactly what that means downstream needs more work to answer," says Stephen Safe, a distinguished professor of toxicology at Texas A&M University, who was not involved with the study. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

POPs and Gut Microbiota: Dietary Exposure Alters Ratio of Bacterial Species
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.