Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China

By Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao et al. | Journal of Environmental Health, January-February 2016 | Go to article overview

Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China


Bai, Liping, Wang, Yeyao, Guo, Yongli, Zhou, Youya, Liu, Li, Yan, Zengguang, Li, Fasheng, Xie, Xuefeng, Journal of Environmental Health


Introduction

Groundwater is an important water resource in China. The current groundwater exploitation quantity accounts for 18% of the total water supply, and 65% of the domestic water is from groundwater in north China. At present, groundwater pollution in some regions of China has become increasingly prominent with accelerated urbanization and industrialization processes. According to the Bulletin of Chinese Environment in 2012, the monitoring wells with water quality at the poor and very poor grades accounted for 40.5% and 16.8%, respectively, among the 4,929 groundwater monitoring wells in 198 prefecture-level administrative regions of China (China Ministry of Environmental Protection [MEP], 2013). The concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater in some monitoring wells exceed the groundwater quality standard of China, and the main pollutants are chromium, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the north plain of China (China MEP, 2013).

Heavy metals are discharged from various industries such as storage batteries, textiles, pigment, fertilizer, plastic, ceramic and glass manufacturing, mining, electroplating, and metallurgical processes (Montazer-Rahmati, Rabbani, Abdolali, & Keshtkar, 2011). Heavy metals can be accumulated along the food chain, which can pose a risk to animals and humans (Barakat, 2011; Nguyen et al., 2013; Yang, Zhao, Xing, & Lin, 2013; Zhu, Han, Bi, & Yang, 2012). Heavy metal contamination is a known causative of various disorders, and the exposure to heavy metals can cause damage to many parts of human bodies if the safe thresholds are exceeded (Hashim, Mukhopadhyay, Sahu, & Sengupta, 2011; Khan, Malik, & Muhammad, 2013; Nguyen et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2014).

Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway of human exposure to heavy metals, and long-term exposure to heavy metals can cause damage to human health. Exposure to heavy metals in drinking water can result in serious health effects, including reduced growth and development, cancer, organ damage, circulatory and nervous system damage, and in extreme cases, death (Barakat, 2011).

Baotou is not only an important base of heavy industry of north China, but also the biggest industrial city of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Groundwater is the main water supply in some regions of Baotou, especially in the rural areas. At present, the overall situation of groundwater pollution in Baotou is not optimistic, and the groundwater pollution is serious in some regions.

Evaluation of groundwater pollution conditions and potential health risk of heavy metals has great significance for the groundwater utilization and supervision in Baotou. The objectives of our study were (1) to investigate the groundwater contamination of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, chromium (VI), lead, and other parameters in Baotou; and (2) to assess the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of local residents exposed to heavy metals through the groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the health risk assessments of heavy metals exposure through the groundwater drinking pathway in Baotou has not been reported.

Materials and Methods

The Study Area

The Baotou plain terrain was selected as the study area, which contains a total area of 768 km2. Baotou is an arid and semiarid region. The yearly average precipitation is 306.5 mm, and the yearly average evaporation is 2273.8 mm (Bai, Wang, & Meng, 2012). Baotou city has a population of two million people, and the main water supply sources are surface water and groundwater. Baotou is an important iron and steel industry base of China, and the current dominant industries include steel and aluminum, equipment manufacturing, electric power, coal chemical, and rare earth metals. Figure 1 shows the location of the study area.

The stratum of the study area mainly includes the Archaeozoic metamorphic rocks, the Mesozoic Jurassic sandstone and conglomerate, and the Cenozoic Quaternary unconsolidated sediments. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.