A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education

By Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia et al. | American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, October 2015 | Go to article overview

A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education


Tsingos, Cherie, Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia, Lonie, John M., Smith, Lorraine, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education


INTRODUCTION

Learning never ceases in a professional career, and the pharmacy profession is no exception. The introduction of new medications and recognition of new and complex medication interactions along with diagnostic and technical developments in pharmacy is ongoing. Clinical decision-making is integral to pharmacy education, and reflective thinking may lead to better informed clinical decisions. (1) Critical thinking, (2-5) problem solving, (6-8) self-directed learning, (1) and skills to overcome communication barriers (9) are essential skills for continuous evaluation of professional practice. (10) Furthermore, increased public concerns over medication errors highlight the importance of critical thinking and decision making. (11) It is with reflective thinking that these skills can be enhanced.

Reflective-thinking skills need to be a focus in pharmacy education so graduates have the ability to view clinical situations from different angles to gain new insights and perspectives. It is with reflection on practice that we challenge our own firmly held beliefs and assumptions. (1) This process is thought to underpin informed judgments and clinical decision-making. Thus, integrating these processes in pharmacy education can better prepare the pharmacy student for the intricacies of future clinical practice. In addition to integrating reflective thinking into pharmacy curricula, using sound methods of assessing students' reflective-thinking skills is also important. Yet, there is a significant gap in the literature regarding the use of reflective rubrics to assess levels of reflecting thinking in pharmacy education. Furthermore, there have been limited provisions for the development of and research on the reliability of such rubrics in this field. This paper reviews the literature to date surrounding assessment strategies employed in health professions education, with the goal of identifying a model to assess reflective practices in pharmacy education.

Reflective practices involve multifaceted processes and form the foundation for deep learning from previous experiences. (1,12) Reflective and critical reflective thinking can be used as tools to promote the retention of knowledge one is exposed to in a traditional didactic classroom setting. For example, students do not simply acquire new information and add it to their memory rather, they integrate and deduce meaning by relating their new found knowledge with prior experiences. (13) Previously, learning was focused narrowly on purely knowledge gained (13) However, learning involves a number of complex processes, which may include reflection and "draws on a reservoir of accumulated experience as a rich resource of learning." (13) Therefore, if reflective practices assist with deeper learning, better judgments, and clinical decision-making, integration of reflective-practice activities into curricula may benefit future pharmacists. For reflective practices to be incorporated into curricula, appropriate assessment strategies must also be addressed.

METHODS

Four researchers conducted a simple systematic review using a 5-step approach (14) (Figure 1). Relevant articles for this review were obtained through searches of: Scopus; ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center); PubMed; Medline via OvidSP; and PsychINFO via OvidSP. Keywords included reflective practice, assessing reflective writing, reflective rubric(s), and reflective learning. The inclusion criteria were publications relating to health disciplines (pharmacy, medicine, nursing, dentistry, and allied health sciences) in the higher education field. English, peer-reviewed journal articles published in the last 20 years were considered. Journal articles that specifically identified strategies for assessing reflective activities were included. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were further screened by reading the abstract.

Figure 1. Simple Systematic Review Using a 5-step
Approach (14)

Step 1: Framing the Questions

Ql. … 

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

A Model for Assessing Reflective Practices in Pharmacy Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.