Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement

By Reid, Patricia A. | The Journal of Southern History, February 2016 | Go to article overview

Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement


Reid, Patricia A., The Journal of Southern History


Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement. By Sara Fanning. Early American Places. (New York and London: New York University Press, 2014. Pp. [xiv], 167. $35.00, ISBN 978-08147-6493-0.)

Caribbean Crossing: Africans Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement is microscopic in its focus. Sara Fanning closely examines the 1820s, when Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer sought recognition from both the United States and France "to improve the standing of his nation" (p. 119). One way Boyer tried to do so was by encouraging the migration of free African Americans to Haiti. Fanning exposes the dramatic confluence of events that led to Boyer's concerted effort to recruit migrants. She argues that Boyer played on the nature of racial politics in the United States and was more diplomatically astute, more of a "wild card in America's nineteenth-century race relations," than historians have previously thought (p. 119).

The author shows Haiti's persistent political struggles for recognition by other nations. She is also adept at peering closely into African American communities to reveal the multiple reasons some people did emigrate to Haiti. The first wave of migrants came at a critical time, when the American Colonization Society planned to repatriate thousands of freed blacks, and Haiti, a symbol of Atlantic slavery's defeat, was proposed as an alternative destination for communities of freed African Americans. Although some of the first wave of emigrants ultimately returned to the North American mainland, those who stayed set up successful communities and engaged in the sugar trade. Some lived communally, sustaining African American lifeways in Haiti.

Fanning's book is best in the final chapters, where she details the lived conditions of migrants in Haiti and the rationales some people had for staying there. Fanning convincingly posits that those who left Haiti did so for multiple reasons: increasing taxes, difficulty sustaining coffee production, the disease environment, and increasingly restrictive laws. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.