Compliance with Smoke-Free Legislation within Public Buildings: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey/Respect De la Legislation Anti-Tabac a L'interieur Des Batiments Public: Une Etude Transversale En Turquie/El Cumplimiento De la Lagislacion Que Propicia Edificios Publicos Libres De Humo De Tabaco: Un Estudio Transversal En Turquia)

By Navas-Acien, Ana; Carkoglu, Asli et al. | Bulletin of the World Health Organization, February 2016 | Go to article overview

Compliance with Smoke-Free Legislation within Public Buildings: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey/Respect De la Legislation Anti-Tabac a L'interieur Des Batiments Public: Une Etude Transversale En Turquie/El Cumplimiento De la Lagislacion Que Propicia Edificios Publicos Libres De Humo De Tabaco: Un Estudio Transversal En Turquia)


Navas-Acien, Ana, Carkoglu, Asli, Ergor, Gul, Hayran, Mutlu, Erguder, Toker, Kaplan, Bekir, Susan, Jolie, Magid, Hoda, Poliak, Jonathan, Cohen, Joanna E., Bulletin of the World Health Organization


Introduction

To protect everyone from the detrimental effects of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, (1,2) the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has called for comprehensive legislation to eliminate tobacco smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces. (3,4) In Turkey--ranked among the top 10 countries in the world for tobacco use in 2008 (5)--the mean cigarette consumption among the 41.5% of men and 13.1% of women who smoked was 20.3 and 15.3 per day respectively in 2012. (6)

Turkey passed a law in 2008 that prohibited smoking in indoor public places and workplaces. (7) Cafes, restaurants, bars, nightclubs and other hospitality venues were given until July 2009 to comply with this legislation. (7) Several studies have evaluated the impact of the legislation in eliminating smoking in public places in Turkey. (8-10) Most were based on convenience sampling (10) and on only a few types of public venues. (8-10) The Global Adult Tobacco Survey has monitored trends in exposure to second-hand smoke in Turkey--based on self-reported exposure in health-care facilities, government buildings, transport hubs and some hospitality venues--but it does not verify if or where smoking is occurring in any of the reported locations. (6,11) In an attempt to evaluate compliance with the legislation on smoking in indoor public places in Turkey more comprehensively, we adapted a guide on compliance studies that was published by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 2014. (12) We used the presence of individuals who were smoking and/or cigarette butts as indicators of noncompliance with the legislation and the presence of ashtrays, the absence of no-smoking signs and the presence of cigarettes for sale as possible facilitators of non-compliance. In addition to evaluating compliance with the legislation on indoor smoking, we assessed outdoor exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke near the buildings.

Methods

Study population

In this cross-sectional observational study, we studied public venues in one city in each of the twelve first-level subdivisions used in Turkey by the European Union's Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics: Aegean, north-eastern, middle, middle-eastern, south-eastern and western Anatolia, eastern and western Black Sea, Istanbul, eastern and western Marmara and Mediterranean. Our corresponding study cities were Adana, Ankara, Balikesir, Bursa, Erzurum, Gaziantep, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, Samsun, Trabzon and Van respectively. Within the urban districts of each city, the Turkish Statistical Institute randomly selected either 10 sampling points for the three major cities (i.e. Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir) or five such points for the smaller cities. Around each sampling point, our fieldworkers visited the closest bars/ nightclubs, cafes, government buildings, hospitals, restaurants, schools, shopping malls, traditional coffee houses and universities. The fieldworkers gradually expanded the search until one or two of each type of public venue had been located around each sampling point and a pre-specified target number of venues of each type had been located in each study city. The target numbers, which had been set by a consensus panel before the field work began (available from the corresponding author), took into account the size of the city, the rarity of the type of venue and the allocated fieldwork duration--of two weeks in each major city and one week in each smaller city. A letter from the Ministry of National Education authorized access to schools. All other venues allowed public access. The fieldwork was conducted in December 2012-January 2013 in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir and in May-July 2013 in the rest of the study cities. Institutional review boards at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore (United States of America) and at Dogus University in Istanbul (Turkey) approved the study protocol. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Upgrade your membership to receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad‑free environment

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Upgrade your membership to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Compliance with Smoke-Free Legislation within Public Buildings: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey/Respect De la Legislation Anti-Tabac a L'interieur Des Batiments Public: Une Etude Transversale En Turquie/El Cumplimiento De la Lagislacion Que Propicia Edificios Publicos Libres De Humo De Tabaco: Un Estudio Transversal En Turquia)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved in your active project from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Upgrade your membership to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.