Which Levels of Education in Medical Sciences Utilize Most the Problem Based Learning?-A Citation Analysis Study

By Hazrati, Hakimeh; Gavgani, Vahideh Zare | Library Philosophy and Practice, April 2016 | Go to article overview

Which Levels of Education in Medical Sciences Utilize Most the Problem Based Learning?-A Citation Analysis Study


Hazrati, Hakimeh, Gavgani, Vahideh Zare, Library Philosophy and Practice


Introduction

In recent years, crucial changes have taken place in the field of clinical education. Now, the emphasis of medical education is on applying learner-centered approaches based on problem solving and students' active learning. (1) The aim of such methods is to involve students in teaching-learning process in order to make learning more effective, tangible, reflective, sel-directed, (2) and community based (3-5). Problem Based Learning (PBL), as one of learner centered adult-like based methods of education, tries to involve students' persuasion and encouragement to determine their learning goals and peer-learning and teaching (6) to increase their ability in deep learning (7-8) and decision making. (9, 10) Since 1990, various studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL, (11-14) even on medical competencies of students after their graduation, especially with regard to their social and cognitive skills (15), to achieve basic knowledge, critical thinking. (16) Since 2008, the PBL has gradually entered Iranian medical education, but there are still doubts about shifting all the curriculum to PBL or the use of PBL partially. A need for a basic scientometric analysis of the contribution of world literature may create evidence for this dilemma in Iran or other countries with a similar history of implementing PBL in medical education.

Scientometrics visualizations bring in the light whether other different countries have changed all of their medical education curriculum to the problem-based learning or have applied PBL in some courses beside traditional curriculum. In this study, the scientific production of PBL in medical education during the last 10 years from January 2003 to October 2013 in different countries has been investigated.

Objectives

The main aim of this study was to visualize the implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) at the levels of curriculum, course, or lesson of medical education in the scientific productions indexed in Web of Science (WoS) and PubMed and Iranian Databases of IranMedex, SID and MagIran during 2003-2013, to create evidence on most implemented level of education concerning PBL.

Key Words: Problem Based Learning, Evidence based education, Scientometrics, Medical Education

Methods

A cross sectional observation and descriptive method was employed to measure the scientific productions of PBL in medical education with scientometrics and bibliometrics perspective. Focus question:

Which levels of medical education (curriculum, course or lesson) mostly utilize the Problem Based Learning?

Secondary outcomes:

The proportion of articles with the primary aim of implementation of PBL in educational levels, The leading country in producing the articles with the mentioned primary aim The highly cited articles and active authors in the subject.

The Share of Iranian authors and journals in producing articles related to PBL in Medical education with the emphasis on the educational levels of curriculum, course, and lesson.

Search Strategy:

Pub Med and ISI Web of Science / WoS (world's largest citation database) and Iranian Databases of IranMedex, SID and MagIran were searched in order to extract all the studies about PBL in medical education on 24th of September 2013. The 'problem based learning' AND 'Medical education' terms with appropriate search strategies and phrases were searched in both the databases; 'all field' feature was applied to explore all of works in the subject. The confounding phrase of 'problem solving' was excluded.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria: only studies were eligible to inclusion that reported use of PBL in one of three levels (curriculum, course and lesson) of medical education without limitation in study design.

As problem based medical education is a new educational method for Iranian medical education, and it emerged since 2008, we limited our search to 5 years before and after PBL was introduced into Iran's medical education (from 2003 to 2013). …

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