An Overview of the Efficacy of the 12-Step Group Therapy for Substance Abuse Treatment

By Gamble, James; O'lawrence, Henry | Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, Summer 2016 | Go to article overview

An Overview of the Efficacy of the 12-Step Group Therapy for Substance Abuse Treatment


Gamble, James, O'lawrence, Henry, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration


ABSTRACT

This study was designed to determine if 12-Steps groups efficacy for substance abuse treatment significantly improve abstinence rates of heroin addicts in the short run and long run (1-year and 5-year period); and if abstinence rates are found to be lower for heroin addicts that have attended 12-Step groups at the 1-year mark, and if similar results would be expected at the 5-year mark. Secondary data from the Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research (ICPSR) was extracted and analyzed for the aforementioned hypothesis. Using SSPS to test the research hypothesis for the 1-Year Follow Up, the chi-square test shows a p-value below of .10, and the analysis determined that there was significant evidence to support the hypothesis that cases in a 12-Steps or self-help program have a higher success than cases not in a program for the 1 -year follow up. For 5-Year Follow Up, the cases that attended a 12-Step program or a self-help program and about 27% went on to use heroin during the last 12 months compared to 34% cases that did not go to a program.

INTRODUCTION

The 12-Step treatment method is spiritually based and the treatment method may be preferred by certain populations; however, individuals that are court-mandated to receive treatment at facilities that primarily utilize the 12-Step treatment method violate the fundamental notion of the separation of church and state. This study attempts to provide an overview of the current state of the 12-Step program and its long-term efficacy. Studies surrounding 12-Step and other forms of treatment are practically non-generalizable, and quite scattered. Therefore, the overall purpose this study was to determine the rates of abstinence between patients whom have attended a 12-Step group, and those whom have not. This study also focused on its application as a treatment for heroin abuse and dependency and addressed the current state of 12-Step treatment for patients addicted to heroin.

Substance abuse treatment remains a topic of considerable taboo even in the current state of social forum. However, with the increase in government spending for substance abuse treatment services, the subject has become a more prevalent topic of discussion. The efficacies of popular treatment methods remain inconclusive. However, with the recent advent of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) as a viable treatment alternative, a considerable amount of academic study has revolved around determining its empirical effectiveness (Buck, 2011).

According to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a substance can refer to "a drug of abuse, a medication, or a toxin" including "alcohol; amphetamine or similarly acting sympathomimetic; caffeine, cannabis; cocaine; hallucinogens; inhalants; nicotine; opioids; phencyclidine (PCP), or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines; and sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics" (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 175).

Williams and Chang (2000) focus on rates of sustained adolescent abstinence, purporting that roughly 38% remain abstinent at 6 months, and approximately 32% at 12 months. The most consistent factors in affecting long-term rates of abstinence include the existence of a strong peer/social support system, and the level of pretreatment substance usage. According to Williams and Change (2000), despite the fact that treatment is superior to non-treatment; the comparative effectiveness of various treatments was inconclusive; and outpatient family therapy appears to have the greatest effect amongst other outpatient treatment methods.

According to Fiorentine (2009), the current literature on the efficacy of substance abuse treatment methods is hindered by methodological shortcomings and proposed that weekly or more frequent participation in a 12-Step program is equally useful in maintaining abstinence from both illicit drug and alcohol abuse. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

An Overview of the Efficacy of the 12-Step Group Therapy for Substance Abuse Treatment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.