Inspector Perceptions of the Food and Drug Administration's Newest Recommended Food Facility Inspection Format: Training Matters

By Ma, Jing; Kim, Jooho et al. | Journal of Environmental Health, June 2017 | Go to article overview

Inspector Perceptions of the Food and Drug Administration's Newest Recommended Food Facility Inspection Format: Training Matters


Ma, Jing, Kim, Jooho, Almanza, Barbara, Journal of Environmental Health


Introduction

The U.S. restaurant industry has enjoyed continuous growth in the last decade (Ghiselli, 2014) with 1 million restaurants and expected sales of $709.2 billion in 2015 (National Restaurant Association, 2015). As such, restaurants play an important role in providing nutritious and healthy food to the public (Almanza, Ghiselli, & Khan, 2014) with restaurant inspections essential to that process of providing healthy food (Reske, Jenkins, Fernandez, VanAmber, & Hedberg, 2007).

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) publishes the Food Code to help guide restaurant inspection efforts. The Food Code is revised every 4 years with amendments every 2 years. FDA's newest release of the 2013 Food Code marks the 20th anniversary of the Food Code (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2015) and reflects collaboration efforts among FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the Conference for Food Protection (CFP). In fact, the 2013 edition directly incorporated the input of consumers and regulatory, industry, and academia stakeholders who participated in the 2012 meeting of the CFP (HHS, 2015).

The purposes of the Food Code are to "assist food control jurisdictions at all levels of government by providing them with a scientifically sound technical and legal basis for regulating the retail segment of the food industry," "reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses within food establishments," provide "uniform standards for retail food safety that reduce complexity and better ensure compliance," "eliminate redundant processes for establishing food safety criteria," and "establish a more standardized approach to inspections and audits of food establishments" (HHS, 2015).

The 2013 Food Code carried over many changes from the 2009 Food Code, including the revised designation system for code violations (HHS, 2009, 2015). This designation system changed "critical" and "noncritical" violations to violations categorized as a "priority" item, "priority foundation" item, or "core" item to better "link the provision to hazards associated with foodborne illness or injury" (HHS, 2015). In other words, the three-tier classification is expected to more closely associate the appropriate amount of risk with violations because its division of violations into three categories might be expected to offer better discrimination among risk levels. In support of this revision, it has been suggested that one advantage to the new designation system is that the "use of critical, priority, and priority foundation is a basis for the risk-based inspection strategy for food safety" (Indiana State Department of Health Food Protection Program, 2015).

While FDA provides the Food Code to guide restaurant inspections, states and other jurisdictions make decisions whether to implement the code in its entirety or in part (HHS, 2015). In other words, different inspection formats may be used in different parts of the county. Currently, many states still use the critical/noncritical inspection system (Food and Drug Administration, 2015).

Although narrative inspection systems such as the critical/noncritical inspection system provide detailed descriptions of violations that take into consideration repeated violations and provide in-depth information, there is no defined passing or failing score. Passing or failing is based on the experience and professional judgment of the health inspector, so that the interpretation of severity or risk may be less clear to restaurant managers and consumers (Almanza et al., 2014). The newly proposed three-tier system faces the same problem. Additionally, "the new terms introduced into the 2009 FDA Food Code are not food safety-related terms that are relevant to educating the public, the regulated industry, and regulatory officials"--resulting in concerns over the feasibility of the new system as it might 1) require "a re-education process that does not emphasize food safety or food-borne illness prevention," as the new system demands changes to "naming convention" and "established culture of food safety" and 2) be "difficult for regulators to articulate and difficult for the regulated industry to understand" (Conference for Food Protection, 2012). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Inspector Perceptions of the Food and Drug Administration's Newest Recommended Food Facility Inspection Format: Training Matters
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.