The Healthy Watershed Framework: A Blueprint for Restoring Nutrient-Impaired Waterbodies through Integrated Clean Water Act and Farm Bill Conservation Planning and Implementation at the Subwatershed Level

By Konopacky, Jamie; Ristino, Laurie | Environmental Law, Summer 2017 | Go to article overview

The Healthy Watershed Framework: A Blueprint for Restoring Nutrient-Impaired Waterbodies through Integrated Clean Water Act and Farm Bill Conservation Planning and Implementation at the Subwatershed Level


Konopacky, Jamie, Ristino, Laurie, Environmental Law


Current approaches to Clean Water Act and farm bill conservation programming are not effectively addressing agricultural runoff in the United States. Waters in the United States are reeling from the effects of nutrient pollution. Clean Water Act and farm bill policies can be revised and integrated to support a small-scale watershed planning and implementation approach that will more effectively restore nutrient-impaired waterbodies. This Article provides an overview of relevant foundational planning principles and complex problem-solving theories and provides concrete Clean Water Act and farm bill policy recommendations, which are rooted in on-the-ground state and local level policy and project experience.

I.    INTRODUCTION                                                  648
II.   PRINCIPLES: SOLVING COMPLEX SOCIAL ISSUES                     653
III.  THE FRAMEWORK                                                 657
       A. Revised Small-Scale Watershed Planning Approach to State
          Clean Water Act Programming                               659
          1. Overview of Clean Water Act Total Maximum Daily Load
             and Nonpoint Programs                                  661
          2. Recommendations for State Clean Water Act
             Programming                                            662
             a. Section 303(d) Programming                          662
             b. Nonpoint (Section 319) Programming                  666
             c. HUC 12-Scale Planning                               668
             d. Site-Level Whole Farm Conservation Plans            673
       B. Revised Farm Bill Programming                             675
          1. Relevant Farm Bill Programs: History and Program
             Overviews                                              675
             a. History                                             676
             b. Programs                                            678
              i. Conservation Compliance                            678
              ii. Conservation Easements                            679
              iii. Conservation Reserve Program                     680
              iv. Working Lands Programs                            680
              v. Other Programs                                     681
              vi. Crop Insurance                                    682
          2. Recommendations for Farm Bill Conservation and Crop
             Insurance Programs                                     683
             a. Conservation Compliance                             683
             b. Crop Insurance                                      684
             c. Resource Prioritization Through the Watershed
                Approach                                            685
             d. Resource Allocation                                 687
             e. Streamlining Administration and Revitalizing
                Technical Assistance                                688
             f. Transparency, Technology Requirements, and
                Public Research                                     690
IV. CONCLUSION                                                      692

"Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and right-doing there is a field. I'll
meet you there." (1)

"[W]e should worry less about whether programs are 'regulatory' or
'voluntary' and more about whether the programs are
environmentally sound, fair, and cost-effective. " (2)

I. INTRODUCTION

Despite decades of implementation of the Clean Water Act (3) (CWA) and Farm Bill Conservation Title programs, (4) including tremendous investment of public resources, (5) we still do not have clean water in the United States. In fact, our waters are reeling from the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrient pollution. (6) Hypoxia in estuaries has significantly increased, and over half of the estuaries in the United States are hypoxic in any given year. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Healthy Watershed Framework: A Blueprint for Restoring Nutrient-Impaired Waterbodies through Integrated Clean Water Act and Farm Bill Conservation Planning and Implementation at the Subwatershed Level
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.