Using Multimedia Programming to Teach Sport Skills
McKethan, Robert N., Turner, Edward T., JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
When considering the term "multimedia" one may think only of commercial products from major software producers. This conception is only partially correct. In schools across America, a myriad of multimedia software applications are being produced by teachers and students in all grades. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the development and use of a multimedia instructional tool. Information presented in this article is also intended to encourage other professionals to augment their instructional processes with self-developed multimedia software presentations.
Multimedia software applications contain elements of technology already found in physical education textbooks, classrooms, and gymnasiums. These elements include the printed word, film strips, film loops, video and audio cassettes, as well as drawings, photographs, and transparencies.
Presentation programs and authoring programs are multimedia software programs that run on a computer. Both are collections of the aforementioned elements in a digital format. Unlike presentation programs, authoring programs allow for a higher level of user interactivity. Some elements that contribute to greater user interactivity include: (1) test-taking capabilities, (2) scoring capabilities, (3) submission of scores via e-mail, and (4) logging of data on program usage. Presentation programs are created using software such as Corel Presentations or Microsoft PowerPoint (known as a development environment), whereas authoring programs are created using programs such as Hyperstudio, Hypercard, SuperLink, and Director. Once the program is assembled, it may be run from within the development environment or packaged so that it runs independently of the development environment.
Using the MultiMedia Analysis of Sport Skills Program
At Appalachian State University, all elementary education majors take a course entitled, "How Children Move."This course is designed to help prepare classroom teachers to support the regular physical education program. Part of the course requires students to study and analyze fundamental and manipulative skills. Many of the students participating in this course have little or no athletic or sport background. Examination of these skills through class demonstrations, study of sequence pictures, observation, and text explanation can be exasperating and can result in sensory overload.
Consequently, the MultiMedia Analysis of Sport Skills (MASS) program was developed by McKethan and Everhart (1997) for the purpose of augmenting classroom instruction. This program was developed using the Asymetrix Toolbook II Assistant (Asymetrix Learning Systems, 1996) program in a PC environment. Toolbook II Assistant is a drag-and-drop authoring program. It allows developers to create multimedia programs that have greater user interactivity than those programs developed with more common multimedia presentation programs such as Corel Presentations and Microsoft PowerPoint.
MASS is used in the classroom to support instruction and outside of the classroom as a study tool for students. With a click of a button, students can see a skill in video and examine still pictures showing phases of the skill execution. The use of MASS in the classroom demonstrates its features so that students may effectively use the program independently of the instructor. The program was placed on a server for non-internet access by students in computer labs across the campus.
MASS uses text, videos, pictures, and graphics to illustrate manipulative skills addressed in physical education programs. This project was started with the intent to gradually add locomotor and non-locomotor skills, striking skills, and specific sport skills.
The program allows the user to view videos of mature and immature executions of manipulative skills. As the user examines a mature execution of a skill, he or she may also read a text description of that particular skill. …