Comparative Analysis of Existing Environmental Control in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Foreign Countries

By Poshanov, Nursultan; Kosanov, Zhumash et al. | Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, January 2018 | Go to article overview

Comparative Analysis of Existing Environmental Control in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Foreign Countries


Poshanov, Nursultan, Kosanov, Zhumash, Alibekov, Sailaubek T., Dossymbekova, Maryam, Begzhan, Aizat, Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues


INTRODUCTION

Analysis of modern research gives grounds to conclude that the significant obstacles to the implementation of existing legislation are the low level of environmental programs' financing, the lack of scientific research in this area, as well as the unsatisfactory level of scientific development of resource-saving technologies, neglect of domestic and foreign best practices. Particular attention in the understanding of ecological systems as a single component of the national ecological system and interstate relations is observed in the process of social production's ecologization (Yerezhepkyzy, 2014). The process of social production's ecologization should be carried out taking into account a fundamentally new ideology of nature management in the context of implementing the foundations of resource-saving, resource-renewing technologies. For this purpose, the countries of the former USSR should harmonize the national environmental legislation and also adapt the requirements of environmental safety of economic and business activities to the standards of international space. Along with this, the ecological state of the environment, the level and character of nature use and environmental protection measures, the environmental safety of the technologies introduced, the level of entrepreneurship's ecologization must also correspond to the generally recognized principles of sustainable development (Artykbaeva, 2015).

Foreign countries use a considerable arsenal of economic levers and means of regulation. They are quite effective and diverse. As a result, considerable experience has been accumulated in the use of various economic methods and instruments to regulate the process of entrepreneurship's ecologization at macro and micro level economies in many economically developed countries of the world. In the US, as in Europe, priorities have changed in the fight against atmospheric pollution. The main programs are not aimed at the introduction of cleaning equipment, but on the creation of environmentally friendly technologies (Akopova, 2014).

In Germany and the countries of the European Union, a strategy for environmentally oriented management and environmental entrepreneurship has been developed and is being implemented as one of the important areas of environmental modernization (Dzhangabulova and Salihbaeva, 2014). This was facilitated by the growing role of environmental qualities and characteristics of goods and products on the market as prerequisites for their production and sales, increased public pressure on entrepreneurs who use natural resources, meet the environmental interests of the population and develop water legislation, increase the importance of environmental law and business.

LITERATURE REVIEW

In the progressive economically developed countries of the world, the value of the stimulating effect of economic instruments of environmental regulation on the economy and entrepreneurship development is growing (Allen, Fontaine & Garmestani, 2012). It is they that help to ensure the correspondence between the cost of production and natural resources; compensation of costs for damage to the environment; compensation of environmental damage by the polluter and not by the whole society (Dyke, McDonald-Gibson, Di-Paolo & Harvey, 2007). However, the share of environmental taxes of all taxes varies from country to country (Nie, 2008). In particular, in 2004 it constituted: In Cyprus-11.9%, in the Netherlands-10.3%, in Denmark-9.8%, in Latvia-9.1%, in Slovenia-8.7%, in Luxembourg-8, 2%, in Ireland-8.1%, in the Czech Republic-7.5%, in Finland-7.4%, in Great Britain-7.3%, in Poland-6.9%, in Italy-6.9%, in Greece-6.8% %, in Estonia-6.7%, in Germany-6.5%, in Lithuania-6.0%, in Spain-5.8%, in Austria-5.6%, in Belgium-5.3%, in France-4.9% .

Thus, the social and environmental-economic integration of the post-Soviet countries must necessarily take into account the foreign experience of environmental regulation mechanisms through systematic improvement and alignment with the international legal, regulatory and methodological and institutional framework for environmental management and safety (Kim, 2013). …

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