The Principles of Religious Tolerance and Harmony among the People of Sasak Tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia

By Asmara, Galang | Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, January 2018 | Go to article overview

The Principles of Religious Tolerance and Harmony among the People of Sasak Tribe in Lombok Island, Indonesia


Asmara, Galang, Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues


INTRODUCTION

Sociologically, there are various religions embraced by the people of Indonesia. From the time before the independence of Indonesia until now there are at least 6 (six) religions embraced by the people of Indonesia, namely Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Protestant, Catholic and Confucianism. (1) (Presidential Stipulation, 1965; Law, 1969). In addition to the six religions, there are also a number of beliefs that live and thrive in Indonesia. Some of the beliefs that still exist today are Subut, Pangestu, Sapta Dharma and Sumarah (2). Although there are a number of religions and beliefs, in reality, Indonesians can coexist peacefully. Good relationship exemplified by the Indonesians is driven by the principle of religious tolerance and harmony that exist among them.

Religious tolerance and harmony in the life of nation and state in Indonesia is very urgent. Therefore, Indonesia embraces the principle of freedom to religion. This principle is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia in Article 28 E, which states in part:

"Everyone is free to embrace the religion and to worship according to their religion ".

The guarantee of religious freedom is also confirmed by Article 29 paragraph (2), stating that: "The state guarantees the freedom of every citizen to embrace his or her own religion and to worship according to his/her religion and belief". The right to religion, according to the provisions of the Indonesian Constitution, is one of human rights that cannot be reduced under any circumstances as defined in Article 28 I Paragraph (1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945), which among others states that the right to religion is a human right that cannot be reduced under any circumstances.

Although the Constitution has guaranteed the right to religion, this right, under the Indonesian Constitution, cannot be done at will. There are certain conditions to avoid interference with the right of other people, security and public order, state and nation. In other words, there are limitations that must be considered by people. The restrictions are in Article 28 J Paragraph (2) of the 1945 Constitution and Article 28 J paragraph (2) which determine that in the run of rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject to the specified restrictions by law with a view solely to ensure recognition as well respect for the rights and freedoms of other people and to satisfy fair demands accordingly with moral considerations, religious values, security and public order within a democratic society.

In connection with the guarantee of freedom to religion by the Constitution of Indonesia, the principle of religious tolerance and harmony is developed in daily life which includes religious tolerance and harmony between intra and interfaith people. Religious tolerance and harmony are an attitude of mutual respect for adherents of other religions. Among them are: a). Not forcing others to embrace a certain religion; b). Not denouncing/insulting other religions for any reason; and c). Not prohibiting or disturbing other religious people to worship based on their religion/belief. (3) inevitably, the growth of tolerance and harmony leads to peaceful living and avoids enmity.

Living in the midst of a pluralistic community of various religions inevitably makes Indonesian citizens apply religious tolerance and harmony both in the life of nation and state and society. In this circumstance, it is important for every believer to think about his/her relationship with other believers to avoid friction, clashes and chaos that will

ruin the peacefulness of living together (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2010).

Religious tolerance and harmony among the Indonesian nation have been imprinted long before the independence of Indonesia. According to the history of Indonesia, the principle of religious tolerance has been implemented in the Age of Majapahit. …

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