Philippine Migration Policy: Dilemmas of a Crisis

By Battistella, Graziano | SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, April 1999 | Go to article overview

Philippine Migration Policy: Dilemmas of a Crisis


Battistella, Graziano, SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia


This paper first reviews the historical development of Filipino migration policy since the early 1970s, with the emphasis shifting from labour export to migration management and the privatization of migration. The main trends of migration in the 1990s are then documented, indicating an increase of Filipino migration to Asian countries, the decrease of first-time overseas workers, and the increase of female migration. The paper then focuses on the dilemmas posed by the economic crisis, such as over redeployment or re-integration, deployment or protection, and issues of deregulation and employment conditions. The paper concludes with an assessment of the limited efficacy and relevance of migration policies in the Philippines, and calls for a regional approach to the issue.

State migration policy indicates the official approach and the various initiatives that a country takes with regard to migration. Sometimes the policy is clearly spelt out; often it can be inferred from the various measures of the government towards migration. Such measures can show coherence or denote a hiatus with official statements. There are cases in which the policy has been determined by legislation; but there also cases in which administrative action has determined the policy without public discussion through the legislative process. Also, while migration refers both to emigration and immigration, attention is often centred on one aspect, depending on what is predominant at a particular time. Thus countries are considered mainly countries of origin or receiving countries on the basis of the predominant direction of the flow. Some countries, however, particularly Malaysia and Thailand, constitute an example of both countries of origin and receiving countries, where migration policy must be articulated for both aspects.

The Philippines is not exempt from immigration. A number of immigrants, particularly from China and India, have entered the country for several years, sometimes first as simple tourists and then over-staying their visas. For better control of irregular "aliens" in the Philippines, the Alien Social Integration Act was passed in June 1995, but it was ended in 30 June 1997. Its results have been considered poor since only 5,947 applied out of an estimated 25,000 potential applicants, and only 3,378 were approved for permanent status (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 29 December 1997). Also, the Philippines is a transit country for refugees, particularly those from Sri Lanka seeking resettlement elsewhere.

It is the emigration aspect which is particularly relevant in the Philippines. More than 60,000 Filipinos go abroad every year as immigrants to countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, while more than 700,000 go abroad as migrant workers. Thus, in terms of sheer size, the Philippines can be considered one of the top emigration countries in the world. It is, therefore, migration policy from the perspective of a country of origin that is relevant and that will be examined in this report.

Historical Background of Filipino Migration Policy

Labour Export

The Philippine labour migration policy began with the well-known intent of participating in the construction projects in the Middle East in the early 1970s. It found its highest formulation in the Labor Code issued by President Marcos in 1974 (PD442), and was clearly aimed at promoting overseas employment (and implicitly at expanding the market for overseas Filipinos) as well as ensuring "the best possible terms and conditions of employment" (Art. 17.2) for them. The implementation of the policy was given to the Overseas Employment Development Board (OEDB) and the National Seamen Board (NSB). It also created the Welfare and Training Fund, which later (1977) became the Welfare Fund for Overseas Workers. The policy also envisioned a government-to-government handling of the overseas labour, the phase-out in four years of the existing private recruiting agencies, the ban on direct hiring by foreign employers, and mandatory remittances. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Philippine Migration Policy: Dilemmas of a Crisis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.