Engineering a European Islam: An Analysis of Attempts to Domesticate European Muslims in Austria, France, and Germany

By Bayrakli, Enes; Hafez, Farid et al. | Insight Turkey, Summer 2018 | Go to article overview

Engineering a European Islam: An Analysis of Attempts to Domesticate European Muslims in Austria, France, and Germany


Bayrakli, Enes, Hafez, Farid, Faytre, Leonard, Insight Turkey


Introduction

Richard Traunmuller shows in his quantitative empirical study that there was an increasing tendency in the EU 27-member states (3) from 1990 to 2011 to regulate religions. (4) Although Traunmuller's study speaks of a general trend and does not deal with differences in the states' policies in regard to different religious communities, this trend is especially true for Islam. As Jonathan Laurence shows in his study from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, "gone were the ad hoc responses [...] and in came corporatist-style institution building and the establishment of 'state-mosque' relations." (5) Especially in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 9/11, European countries became more and more interested in gradually taking "'ownership' of their Muslim populations because it grants them unique influence over organizations and leadership." (6)

By influencing how Islam should look, national governments aim at creating "the institutional conditions for the emergence of a French or German Islam, e.g., rather than just tolerating Islam 'in France or Germany" (7) This reflects two aims of these states: i) to free Muslims and disconnect them from an allegedly foreign policy agenda, especially from the influence of the embassies of their origin countries, and ii) to 'moderate' those Muslim organizations that have a transnational link to Islamist movements. (8) Many authors share the observation that states want a domesticized, "democratic European Islam" in the context of debates about Islam as constituting a threat to "security," (9) "integration," and "European values," (10) while others also problematize the racial dimension that structures these attempts. (11)

In most European countries, the initiative to create 'state-mosque' relations comes from Ministries of the Interior, which have institutionalized 'dialogue platforms' to discuss issues of Islam, society, inclusion and extremism with Muslim actors. For Muslim civil society actors, the main purpose of participating in these state initiatives is to negotiate the institutional incorporation of Muslim institutions into the political system, and the accommodation of Muslim religion, as Luis Manuel Hernandez Aguilar shows for the case of Germany. (12) While a number of analyses discuss these Islam policies on a European level, (13) in a comparative perspective in different European countries (14) or single cases such as Austria, (15) Germany, (16) France, (17) or Great Britain, there is little critical research comparing Islam Politics on a cross-national European level.

One of the most quoted works by political scientists is Fetzer and Soper's comparative study on the accommodation of Islam in Germany, France and Britain. (18) Drawing on social movement theory, their main insight is that historically built church-state relations pre-structure the accommodation of Islam. This basically affirms the approach of path dependency as taught in theories of institutionalism, which is also shared by other authors. (19) Tatari has added to the four theories of social movement theory (SMT) discussed by Fetzer and Soper (resource mobilization theory, political opportunity structure theory, ideological theories, and approaches highlighting the influence of church-state relations) a fifth explanatory factor, which is "to account for the religious traditions characteristic of a particular group." (20) Others rather questioned the SMT approach. For instance, Loobuyck et al. have demonstrated that church-state regimes did not have an impact on the institutionalization of representative Muslim organizations, which is an important critique of Fetzer and Soper's work, who take the different treatments of Muslims -compared to the dominant churches- by the state as given. In their analysis of cases in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK, they argue that "several states have abandoned their traditional methods when dealing with the institutionalization of Islam. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Engineering a European Islam: An Analysis of Attempts to Domesticate European Muslims in Austria, France, and Germany
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.