Sport Tourism: The Rules of the Game

By Gibson, Heather J. | Parks & Recreation, June 1999 | Go to article overview

Sport Tourism: The Rules of the Game


Gibson, Heather J., Parks & Recreation


Sport tourism is an area of study that has become increasingly pervasive over the past five years. Before 1998, a literature search using the term sport tourism yielded few citations. This is not to say that articles on the topic did not exist, but the term sport tourism has only recently been widely adopted to describe sport-related leisure travel. Nonetheless, inconsistencies still exist in the usage of the term, from tourism sport (Kurtzman & Zauhar, 1995) to sports tourism (Redmond, 1991). This lack of consistency can be attributed to many causes. Until recently, few scholars adopted an international focus to their work. Some of the first work on sport tourism had a European focus (De Knop, 1987 & 1990; Glyptis, 1991; Redmond, 1991) and was rarely referenced by other sport tourism scholars. Also, an "artificial academic divide" (Gibson, 1998a, p. 46) persists between scholars in such fields as sport management and tourism management. This divide has often meant that scholars who do not read across disciplines have missed work published in journals not in their respective field. As more sophisticated ways of searching for literature emerge, such incognizance will hopefully be avoided in the future.

Another issue that arises from the fields of sport studies and tourism studies is the ongoing debate regarding the definitions of sport and tourism. In the September 1998 issue of Parks & Recreation, I suggested that sport tourism might be defined as "leisure-based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to play, watch physical activities or venerate attractions associated with these activities" (p. 110). As such, sport tourism encompasses three macro behaviors: participating (active sport tourism), watching (event sport tourism), and visiting or venerating famous sports-related attractions (nostalgia sport tourism). This article will review the major works in each of these three areas and suggest some ideas for future research and practical application by recreation practitioners.

Active Sport Tourism

In 1986, at one of the first conferences addressing sport tourism, held at the Wingate Institute in Israel, DeKnop presented one of the most influential works on the active sport tourist (1987), which he later refined in 1990. De Knop identified three types of active sport vacations: the pure sport holiday, where the primary purpose is to take part in sports such as skiing or golf; the vacation, in which sport is not the primary purpose but individuals make use of the sports facilities in their vacation locale; and the private sporting holiday, where people take part in informal "pick-up" games such as beach volleyball.

This research is important because it introduced the idea that not all sport tourists are the same in terms of their commitment to the sport and the type of facilities that they require. The recognition that sport tourists differ in their motivations suggests that motivation theory might help future researchers to gain a better understanding of the constructs underlying the choice of an active sport vacation. Also, for the practitioner, this work identifies three market segments, each of which has different needs including type of facility, challenge (e.g., degree of difficulty of a golf course or ski slope), and pricing structure.

Other influential works on the active sport tourist originated in Europe. Glyptis (1991) and Jackson (Glyptis & Jackson, 1993) wrote of the growing use of sports facilities by tourists, concerning themselves particularly with the lack of coordination between tourist agencies and sports agencies in the provision and policy-making of sport facilities in vacation destinations. This coordination is still an important aspect of meeting the needs of the active sport tourist. Indeed, Weed and Bull (1997), in a more recent review of the policies of local tourism and sport agencies, found that despite Glyptis' recommendations, there was still a lack of cooperation between these public agencies throughout most of England. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Sport Tourism: The Rules of the Game
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.