A Comparison of Approaches to Student Pharmacist Business Planning in Pharmacy Practice Management

By Gatwood, Justin; Hohmeier, Kenneth et al. | American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, June 2018 | Go to article overview

A Comparison of Approaches to Student Pharmacist Business Planning in Pharmacy Practice Management


Gatwood, Justin, Hohmeier, Kenneth, Farr, Glen, Eckel, Stephen, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education


INTRODUCTION

Experiential education has been a staple of pharmacy education as a vital element of the learning process for student pharmacists. Provided by Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPE) and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE), direct exposure assists degree candidates in transitioning toward pharmacy practice, providing a bridge between didactic instruction and real-world applications. As may be expected and required, much, if not all, of the focus for these experiences is the development of clinical skills; however, abilities beyond those mastered in therapeutics and similar course-work are needed to become a successful practitioner. In recognition of this and as dictated by accrediting bodies, colleges of pharmacy require graduates to complete coursework focused on practice management, training which crosses multiple domains outlined by the most recent Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes and reinforced by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). (1,2) Specifically, curricular content is expected to include material that encourages innovation and entrepreneurship (CAPE 4.3) as well as problem-solving (CAPE 3.1) where learning objectives stress initiative, creative decision making, and a step-wise approach to identifying, considering, and implementing solutions, among others. (1) To address these expectations, content of practice management courses commonly include operations management, human resources, finance, quality improvement, and other universal topics critical to pharmacy practice. Additionally, themes central to effective management are often included, such as leadership, team building, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques.

As has been pointed out, what may challenge effective student learning--unlike more clinically focused courses--is the lack of context for immediate, practical application of the information offered. (3) While exposure to material in the pharmacy management classroom may form the basis for foundational knowledge in business, economics, or management, significant learning cannot take place without integration of other approaches that may lead to improved learning. (4) Consequently, skills deemed critically important by accrediting bodies may not be as fully absorbed as those which were applied in real-world scenarios during APPE rotations (ie, leveraging higher-level concepts outlined by Bloom's taxonomy). (5) Although some APPE placements may provide more in-depth exposure to the business and managerial aspects of pharmacy practice, this is not a universal requirement for all students nor may it be operationally feasible for all schools.

Entrepreneurial educators have recognized a similar issue in their field, suggesting the increased need for inserting students into actual environments rather than relying on existing information to provide instruction on entrepreneurship within the confines of the classroom. (6,7) While innovation may play a more central role in entrepreneurship education, it would be a missed opportunity to not leverage what has been observed by colleges of business in adequately responding to calls for improved focus on developing entrepreneurial skills. (6,7) To do so, pharmacy instructors may need to leverage innovative approaches to assist students in fully absorbing managerial material crucial to their success as future practitioners. This includes considering the content and techniques used by non-medical disciplines as they may provide valuable guidance. For example, business schools across the United States have regularly used consulting projects as an active learning mechanism to connect in-class material with real-world experience, the process for which having been fully outlined for schools to model. (8) This field-based exercise places students with firms in the area and requires them to perform team-based problem solving in an active business environment. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

A Comparison of Approaches to Student Pharmacist Business Planning in Pharmacy Practice Management
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.