The Modern Racism toward Maori Scale

By Satherley, Nicole; Sibley, Chris G. | New Zealand Journal of Psychology, July 2018 | Go to article overview

The Modern Racism toward Maori Scale


Satherley, Nicole, Sibley, Chris G., New Zealand Journal of Psychology


A reader reviewing the research literature on racism in New Zealand for the first time could be forgiven for being confused as to how to appropriately measure people's racist attitudes toward Maori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). Maori form roughly 15% of the population (Statistics New Zealand, 2013), and experience inequality in a number of domains including poorer health outcomes, lower household income, poorer subjective well-being, and higher rates of incarceration (Ministry of Social Development, 2010; Department of Corrections, 2016; Sibley, Harre, Hoverd & Houkamau, 2011). Experiences of discrimination continue to be widely reported by Maori, and are associated with lower well-being (Houkamau, Stronge, & Sibley, 2017), while lower home-ownership rates among those with a self-perceived Maori appearance point to the presence of institutional racism (Houkamau & Sibley, 2015). There are many different self-report 'Likert-style' measures or proxies measuring racist attitudes toward Maori that have been employed in questionnaires over the years. These measures, including many of our own, are often developed ad hoc for a particular study, with only preliminary if any validation, and tend to be closely based on measures developed overseas to assess attitudes toward other ethnic groups (e.g., Duckitt, 2001; Duckitt & Sibley, 2007; Duckitt & Parra, 2004; Sibley & Liu, 2007, 2010; Sibley, Robertson & Wilson, 2006).

The many different measures commonly used to assess racism toward Maori share a theoretical framework insofar as they are typically designed to measure attitudes that fit Allport's (1954, p. 9) general definition of racism as 'an antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization. It may be directed toward [an ethnic] group as a whole, or toward an individual because he [sic] is a member of that group.' However, outside of this, the various measures used to measure individual differences in racism toward Maori in New Zealand are non-systematic and contain varying levels of overlap in their item content and focus. These idiosyncrasies in the measurement of racism toward Maori in questionnaire research make it difficult to compare and contrast results across studies, to track change in the level of racism over time by comparing sample means, and so forth. The ability to reliably measure and track levels of racism in this way is important for understanding how racism is expressed, which aspects may be more or less pervasive than others, and thus what interventions can be put in place to help reduce racist attitudes.

What is needed is the development of a systematic theoretical model and associated self-report questionnaire scale assessing modern racism toward Maori. Such a scale should capture the overall extent to which one may express affect and attitudes that are to the detriment of the well-being and equality of Maori in modern-day New Zealand. It should also reflect the content of expressions of racism toward Maori in everyday language and the media captured within qualitative research (e.g. Barnes et al., 2012; McCreanor, 1993; Nairn & McCreanor, 1990, 1991; Nairn, Pega, McCreanor, Rankine, & Barnes, 2006; Sibley, Liu, & Kirkwood, 2006; Wetherell & Potter, 1992) as well as in quantitative research. In our view, quantitative measures of racism toward Maori have under-capitalized on qualitative research to date. As a result, what we know about the qualitative expression of racism in New Zealand has not translated to its' reliable questionnaire measurement for use in quantitative research.

As such, the present research draws upon extant qualitative and quantitative literature to propose a ten-item self-report scale assessing Modern Racism toward Maori. We first provide a brief review of quantitative measures of modern racism in the United States, which are similar to, but have important contextual differences to measuring racism in New Zealand. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Modern Racism toward Maori Scale
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.