A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training

By Salas, Eduardo; Prince, Carolyn et al. | Human Factors, March 1999 | Go to article overview

A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training


Salas, Eduardo, Prince, Carolyn, Bowers, Clint A., Stout, Renee J., Oser, Randall L., Cannon-Bowers, Janis A., Human Factors


INTRODUCTION

In the 1970s, hundreds of airline passengers on routine, scheduled flights lost their lives because each of three aircrews committed an error. In one incident, the crew failed to take fuel levels into consideration during problem solving; in the second incident, the crew did not monitor the altitude; and in the third incident, the crew misinterpreted an air traffic control communication. The crew members who committed the errors had tens of thousands of hours of flight experience, yet the errors committed should have been avoided by even the most inexperienced pilots. The crews were not members of a country in which standards of pilot training and certification were questionable, and each of these crews worked for a major air carrier.

Two of the crews were flying domestic operations within the United States. In both domestic accidents, the crew members committed the errors while responding to a potentially unsafe problem with the plane by taking extra time and care to troubleshoot or prepare (or both) for this unplanned circumstance. As a result of their lapses, their planes ended the flight in one case by crashing into a stand of trees in Oregon, and in the other case by crashing into the Florida Everglades. The third plane, on an international flight, had results so catastrophic that it sent shock waves throughout the world. This plane collided with another aircraft, immediately ending the lives of everyone aboard both planes.

After 20 years, the aviation industry is still challenged by a haunting question: Why is the number of take-offs not equal to the number of safe landings? In the past 20 years, it has been commonly acknowledged that almost 60% to 80% of aviation incidents and accidents were attributable to human error in the cockpit (Foushee, 1984). This recognition led a number of applied psychologists to suggest an intervention aimed at improving human performance and, in particular, teamwork in the cockpit. This intervention, commonly referred to as crew resource management (CRM) training, now has a long history of research and practice in the air carrier industry (Wiener, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993).

On the military side, CRM training developments have also emerged. (The military labeled this team training intervention aircrew coordination training, but we will use the term CRM in this paper because it is most common in the airline industry and government regulatory agencies.) The U.S. Navy (in particular, the Marine Corps) enlisted the help of the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division about 10 years ago in improving the safety of its rotary wing fleet. Our response was to design and conduct a long-term program of research that began with theory building and moved into development of measures of performance, design of instruction, empirical testing, and evaluation. The purpose of this paper is to describe our efforts in this regard. To do this, we organized the presentation around the critical questions that have guided our research:

1. What is CRM, and, more specifically, what is CRM training?

2. Which theories provide a basis to develop CRM training?

3. Which skills underlie effective CRM?

4. Which instructional approaches and strategies are appropriate to impart CRM skills?

5. What evidence exists to support the effectiveness of CRM training?

We conclude with a presentation of our methodology for developing CRM training and a word about reciprocity between training science and practice.

What Is CRM and CRM Training?

The three accidents discussed in the previous section help illustrate a persistent threat to safe aviation: human error caused by inadequate coordination among team members. Although there were minor mechanical failures in two of the accidents, each occurred because of the crew's error. It is clear that the errors made in these accidents were not the result of inadequate technical training. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.