Japanese and U.S. Programs in Taiwan: New Patterns in Taiwanese Television

By Ishii, Kenichi; Su, Herng et al. | Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Summer 1999 | Go to article overview

Japanese and U.S. Programs in Taiwan: New Patterns in Taiwanese Television


Ishii, Kenichi, Su, Herng, Watanabe, Satoshi, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media


Rapid economic growth and political democratization in Taiwan in recent years have accelerated the dissemination of foreign popular culture in the form of comics, music tapes, videotapes, home video games, and TV programs. This article focuses on two foreign cultures in Taiwanese TV, one from the U.S. the other from Japan. After briefly reviewing the history of broadcasting in Taiwan, this article will examine how historical background as well as social status influence viewers' preference for foreign TV programs. This examination is based on a national survey conducted by the authors.

Taiwan has had three terrestrial broadcasting stations - TTV, CTV, and CTS - since the 1960s. Legally, they are commercial television networks relying on advertising for income. In fact, however, they have been under governmental control and bound by strict restrictions regarding TV programs. For example, entertainment programs may not exceed 50% of total broadcast time. Overseas programs are restricted to less than 30%. Programs imported from overseas must have explanations or superimposed captions in Chinese. In 1991, when Japanese TV programs were still banned on the terrestrial channels, 83.92% of the programs broadcast by one of the stations (TTV) were in Mandarin, 7.61% in English, 8.05% in Taiwanese, and 0.42% were in other languages (Su, 1992). According to recent statistics, 17% to 22% of TV programs on the three terrestrial channels were foreign (TV Yearbook Compilation Committee, 1996). There are also regulations on the relative proportions of news, educational and cultural programs, and advertisements on terrestrial TV.

Cable TV (CATV) penetration to households in Taiwan exceeded 70% in 1996, just three years after the authorization of commercial CATV in 1993. Commercial CATV in Taiwan has a unique background with an illegal CATV station called the "Fourth Channel" having operated extensively for quite some time before legalization in 1993.1 A 1983 survey indicated that between 150,000 and 300,000 households in Taipei and its suburbs had subscribed to the Fourth Channel (Wang, 1984). According to that survey, the most popular program on the "Fourth Channel" was a Japanese detective story (a TV drama) in the 1980s. Programs broadcast on CATV were mostly Japanese and Western movies (Wang, 1984). Despite the Government's repeated disciplinary actions which included cutting cables, CATV continued to prosper, and the Government finally authorized CATV in 1993. At that time, about 400 CATV operators broadcast programs which were mostly received via such foreign satellite broadcasting as Star TV (Hong Kong), MTV and NHK (Japan).

The authorization of CATV generated a large number of channels that compete for viewers and divide advertising revenue. At the moment, CATV subscribers pay an average of NT$ 450 (US$ 16) per month. There were approximately 150 operators in 51 legal franchises in Taiwan as of 1996. The CATV systems are operating in an extremely competitive environment. Some areas have three or four licensed operators, which compete intensely for audience (TV Yearbook Compilation Committee, 1996). There are three reasons for the rapid penetration of CATV in Taiwan.

First, many Taiwanese were discontented with programs on terrestrial TV, due to restrictions enforced by the Taiwanese Government. Even though deregulation was underway in the 1990s, considerable discontent was felt, particularly by the younger generation and by intellectuals (Bureau of General Budgets, 1992). Second, satellite broadcasts from abroad were becoming more available in Taiwan in the 1980s. Japan's NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) launched satellite broadcasting in 1987. Other satellite broadcasting stations such as STAR TV and CNN arrived in the Taiwanese market in the late 1980s. CATV stations owe much of their success during the 1980s to the popular appeal of satellite programs aired through the CATV network. NHK's "spillover" broadcasting was widely received without any charge until 1996, because Japanese law restricted N H K's broadcasting service to Japanese territory. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Japanese and U.S. Programs in Taiwan: New Patterns in Taiwanese Television
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.