Marginalized Violent Internal Conflict in the Age of Globalization: Mexico and Egypt

By Tschirgi, Dan | Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ), Summer 1999 | Go to article overview

Marginalized Violent Internal Conflict in the Age of Globalization: Mexico and Egypt


Tschirgi, Dan, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ)


Marginalization . . . is a condition resulting from prolonged functional superfluousness. [Marginals] are deprived of virtually all the roles of which functioning society is composed. . . . Considered by the rest of the population as pariahs, morally and even perhaps biologically distinctive, they . . . remain more or less permanently on the perimeters of society. . . .(1)

"Globalization" is here taken to mean the process through which economics, politics and technology unleash forces that increasingly make the societies of our world not only more interconnected but also more susceptible to similar experiences. Among such experiences is violent conflict in the context of rapid socio-economic-political change. Neoliberal economic strategies, which figure so prominently in globalizing trends, are frequently blamed for much of today's violence in developing areas. Indeed, some would agree with Pierre Bourdieu's characterization of neoliberalism as an "infernal machine" whose tentacles must produce structural violence wherever they reach.(2)

This sweeping stand is unsatisfactory, begging the questions of how and why neo-liberal globalization may generate conflicts and ignoring the patently obvious fact that neo-liberal policies have not invariably led to social violence. Nonetheless, substantial evidence indicates that globalization's neoliberal dimension has been associated with the eruption of major domestic violence in developing areas. The real problem is to identify the circumstances and dynamics that may lead to this outcome.

Unfortunately, no generally accepted comprehensive typology of political violence exists. Still, it seems clear that such conflicts fall into broad categories that are essentially different. For example, a compelling distinction exists between international and internal conflicts involving developing states. In ram, the latter category is equally not all of one piece. Conflicts between the state and separatist movements as well as inter-ethnic conflicts in relation to which governments stand as involved - but nonetheless third - parties are also forms of sustained confrontations in developing countries

There also occur violent conflicts between governments and rebellious protagonists who neither seek separation from the state, nor challenge the state's essential validity, nor find their basic objectives in particularistic ethnic, tribal or regional demands. Insurrection is mounted in the name of the state itself and of its entire population. The polity's "true" values are claimed to be those of the insurrectionists. The existing government, or the existing political system in its entirety, is charged with betrayal of those values. Ethnicity, while possibly a practical factor in insurrectionary mobilization, is overshadowed by insurrectionary invocations of broader values within the state. Yet, in contrast to civil wars, conflicts of this sort do not produce relatively balanced warring parties who share the perception that a critical and decisive military straggle has been joined. Instead, the armed challenge to state authority emanates almost exclusively from mobilized elements of the most marginalized sectors of national society. The imbalance of power so overwhelmingly favors state authorities that the rebels' armed crusade fails to present a credible military threat. Authorities can therefore characterize the marginals' struggle as an irritating and misguided aberration of little consequence to the normal functioning of the state. Thus, the conflict is doubly linked to "marginality," pitting elements of the "functionally superfluous" against national governments in a struggle that is itself officially marginalized. There is, however, an important caveat to this: although the insurrectionary marginals have opted to reject the existing political process, their objectives are largely shared and supported - at least morally - by important dissenting actors within the political system. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Marginalized Violent Internal Conflict in the Age of Globalization: Mexico and Egypt
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.