Math Curse or Math Anxiety?

By Stuart, Vanessa B. | Teaching Children Mathematics, January 2000 | Go to article overview

Math Curse or Math Anxiety?

Stuart, Vanessa B., Teaching Children Mathematics

Imagine that you are a fifth-grade mathematics teacher. You have two classes totaling fifty-four students. These students all exhibit different academic and behavior levels. Some students like mathematics; others do not. Mathematics comes easily for some of your students; others struggle every step of the way. Your task is to create a challenging curriculum that improves test scores while allowing all students to be successful. That challenge is a real-life problem!

A Definition of Math Anxiety

As so eloquently stated by Mrs. Fibonacci, a fictional character from Scieszka and Smith's (1995) Math Curse, "Everything can be thought of as a math problem." I was starting to think that this particular problem was too challenging for even the greatest of problem solvers. However, as I looked more closely, I began to see that some students were academically very capable yet still struggled with mathematics. This realization was my first clue as to how to meet the mathematical needs of all students in my classroom. First, I had to determine why some students feel relaxed and competent in mathematics, whereas others feel nervous and stressed anytime that they are confronted with mathematical questions. I discovered that their distress is much more than a "curse"; it is a real affliction called "math anxiety" (Tobias 1978).

It is ironic that the subject seen as the most logical and intellectual is also the one that ignites so many passionate emotions. Many people think of mathematics as a punishment or something that induces stress (Zaslavsky 1994). Tobias describes math anxiety as a feeling of "sudden death." It is an obsession with the idea that "everyone knows that I don't understand. I'd better not draw attention to myself by asking questions." Math anxiety can even develop into the more serious math avoidance and math phobia (Tobias 1978).

Math anxiety usually arises from a lack of confidence when working in mathematical situations. Many people incorrectly assume that math anxiety and an inability to be successful in mathematics are inherited from one's parents. Several legitimate factors contribute to, and increase the severity of, this perception. For instance, gender and ethnic backgrounds are not determining factors in mathematical competence, but peers' and teachers' attitudes toward gender and ethnicity may increase or decrease one's confidence in mathematical skills (Tobias 1978). The methods used to teach mathematics skills may affect whether a student feels successful and develops mathematical self-confidence. Finally, family and peer attitudes may positively or negatively influence students' attitudes toward mathematics, which in turn affect their levels of confidence. My own hypothesis is that mathematics is like a sport: 90 percent mental--one's mathematics confidence--and 10 percent physical--one's mathematics competence in perfor ming mathematical skills.

Development of a Research Study

After observing several very math-anxious students, I conducted a survey to identify where my fifth graders fit into the continuum of mathematics confidence. I wanted to see how their own attitudes, as well as those of the people around them, affected their confidence level. I also wanted to know what teaching strategies the students thought worked best for them. If I could somehow relate mathematics to what the students enjoyed and felt successful with, then I could help them overcome or completely avoid math anxiety.

Some questions for the survey were created on the basis of factors influencing "math confidence." Other questions supported some of my own theories correlating students' interests and ability levels. I wanted both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative questions would provide statistical data, whereas qualitative questioning would give me the best information for adapting my mathematics curriculum.

The survey questions directed the students to select an answer and then to explain or justify their choice. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Math Curse or Math Anxiety?


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.