Exploring Repeated Sampling Techniques in Field-Rng Research
Broughton, Richard S., The Journal of Parapsychology
ABSTRACT: Field-RNG experiments are a new type of psi experiment in which continuously running RNGs reportedly show increases in order (as measured by variance) in response to changes in the states of consciousness of individuals in small or large groups.
Some researchers have posited the existence of a "conscious field" which emanates from the group and alters the output of the RNG. Whether or not that is true, the underlying model is that something--the consciousness field or the individual consciousnesses of the group members--perturbs the RNG. If these consciousness field effects truly represent an influence on the RNG, then repeated sampling of essentially identical events should substantially increase the evidence of the effect.
Two exploratory studies using repeated sampling were conducted. One study involved operating a multiple-RNG device during the weekly broadcast of two popular television shows, "Seinfeld" and "ER." A second study examined data collected by nine RNGs operating as part of the Global Consciousness Project (GCP; http://noosphere.princeton.edu) over the repeated arrival of the 1999 New Year around the world. Also, a single-sample formal replication was undertaken using the finale of the Seinfeld series--a special broadcast accompanied by much media publicity--to test the feasibility of finding field effects with that program.
Data for the television show experiments was produced by five RIPP-type RNGs fitted in a single Apple II computer. Scores were converted to [z.sup.2] variance scores and summed across six-second periods.
During the Seinfeld finale an observer time-coded the program and commercial content. Data from the program segments yielded a [X.sup.2] = 4675.4, df = 4485, p = .023 confirming the predicted effect. Data from the commercial segments did not deviate from chance [X.sup.2] = 1529.1, df = 1510, p = .36. Matched control data also did not show departures from chance.
No time-coding of content was done in the repeated sampling investigations. Instead, it was expected that the accumulation of data should reflect the regular program periods in the way an evoked brain potential emerges from repeated sampling of EEG data. …