552 First mention of T'u-kue tribe in Central Asia.
751 Chinese Buddhists driven out of Central Asia by Arab
Muslim armies, opening the way for Turkish
conversion to Islam.
861 Turkish slave soldiers kill the Muslim Caliph
al-Mutawakkil. Turks become arbiters of Islamic courts
from Cairo to Baghdad.
1071 Seliuk Turkish Sultan Alparslan Beg defeats Byzantine
Emperor Romanus Diogenes IV at Mailzgert. Anatolia
open for settlement by Turkish tribes.
1097 First Crusade devastates Seliuk fiefdoms and allows
Byzantines to retake control of some of Anatolia.
1206-27 Genghis Khan begins Mongol invasion of Asia.
1236 Mongols conquer Russia.
1299 Establishment of the Ottoman Empire in central Anatolia.
1353 Ottoman invasion of Europe begins.
1453 Ottoman armies conquer Constantinople under Mehmed
II. Collapse of Byzantine Empire.
1500s Ottoman Empire reaches its height under Suleyman the
1648 Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War.
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz: Ottoman Empire receives it first
1789 Selim III, the first Westernizing sultan, ascends the
1821-8 Greek War of Independence. Turks defeated after
Britain, Russia and France join in struggle.
1839 Gulhane Rescript ushers in major period of Ottoman
reform, known as the tanzimat.
1854-56 Crimean War. Turks fight on the side of British and
French against Russia.
1876-77 First Constitutional Period ended by Abdulhamid II.
1908 Young Turk Revolution.
1914 Ottoman Empire signs secret alliance with Germany
1914-18 First World War. Ottomans fight on the side of
Germany and Austria-Hungary
1918-22 Allied occupation of Istanbul after Young Turk leaders
1919 Greek forces, encouraged by Britain and others, occupy
Anatolia in May Turkish War of Independence starts.
1920 The Turkish Grand National Assembly meets for the
first time on 23 April as representatives of the new
Turkish state. Allies force sultan's government to sign
Treaty of Sevres on 20 August, aiming to split Anatolia
between British, French, Italian, Greek, Armenian and
possibly Kurdish regions. Treaty is never ratified and
Turkish troops launch offensive on Armenia to capture
1922 War turns in favor of Turks. Ataturk abolishes the
sultanate on 1 November.
1923 Turkish-Greek Treaty exchanges nearly one million
ethnic Greek Christians from Anatolia for nearly
400,000 Turkish Muslims in Greece. The signing of the
Lausanne Treaty on 24 July provides the basis of
international legitimacy for the new Turkey. The
Turkish Republic is proclaimed on 29 October, with
Mustafa Kemal as president and Ankara as its capital.
1924 Parliament abolishes the Islamic Caliphate. Kurdish
associations and newspapers are shut down.
1925 Kurds rise up under the leadership of Sheikh Said but
are brutally suppressed by the state. The Kemalist
revolution starts: Religious orders and brotherhoods are
suppressed, the fez is abolished and the Western
1926 The Swiss civil code and the Italian penal code are
enacted. Treaty with Britain and Iraq resolves Mosul
disputes and fixes Turkey's southeastern border.
1928 Introduction of the Latin alphabet. Secularism replaces
Islam as official ethos of the state.
1934 Turks are ordered to take family names. Parliament
grants Mustafa Kemal the surname of Ataturk. Women
given the right to vote.
1936 Signing of the Montreux Convention gives Turkey
sovereignty over the Straights but requires free passage
for merchant shipping and some warships. …