The Multiple-Media Difference

By Dede, Chris | Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, Spring 1999 | Go to article overview

The Multiple-Media Difference


Dede, Chris, Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology


USING SEVEN KINDS OF SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS INTERACTIVE MEDIA FOR A COURSE ON DISTANCE LEARNING--FACE-TO-FACE AS WELL AS VIRTUAL TECHNIQUES--THIS UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTOR REPORTS THAT ALL OF HIS GRADUATE STUDENTS WERE ABLE TO FIND THEIR VOICES 1N ONE OR ANOTHER OF THE MEDIA AND MANY OF THEM ACHIEVED PROFOUND AND RICH LEARNING EXPERIENCES AT A DISTANCE. BUT THE USE OF MULTIPLE INTERACTIVE MEDIA ALSO HAS DISADVANTAGES. NOT THE LEAST OF WHICH 1S THE PROBLEM OF MEASURING THE OUTCOMES OF WHAT HE CALLS DISTRIBUTED LEARNING.

A medium is in part a channel for conveying content. With the Internet increasingly pervading society and fostering new interactive media such as shared virtual environments, educators can readily reach extensive, remote resources and audiences using on-demand and just-in-time techniques.

Just as important, however, a medium is a representational container that permits the use of new types of messages. Since expression and communication are based on representations such as language and imagery, the process of learning is enhanced by broadening the types of instructional messages students and teachers can exchange. New forms of representation, such as interactive models using visualization and other means of making abstractions tangible and sensory, make possible a broader, more powerful repertoire of pedagogical strategies.

Emerging interactive media also empower novel types of learning experiences. Interpersonal interactions across networks, for instance, can lead to the formation of virtual communities. (See my article "Emerging Technologies and Distributed Learning," American Journal of Distance Education 10:2, pp. 4-36.)

DISTRIBUTED LEARNING

By means of the innovative kinds of pedagogy enabled by these novel media, messages, and experiences, our hitherto synchronous, group, presentation-centered forms of education--traditional "teaching by telling"--are evolving into an alternative instructional paradigm. "Distributed learning" involves orchestrating "learning-by-doing" educational activities among classrooms, workplaces, homes, and community settings.

Recent advances in computer-supported collaborative learning, hypermedia, and experiential simulation allow students to experience guided, inquiry-based learning across barriers of distance and time. With the aid of mentors, students collaboratively create, share, and master knowledge about authentic real-world problems. Through a mixture of instructional media, learners and educators can experience synchronous or asynchronous interaction: face-to-face or in disembodied fashion, as an "avatar" expressing an alternate form of individual identity.

Distributed learning shows students that education is integral to all aspects of life, not just schooling. It also shows them that people adept at learning can use many tools for expression and communication, tools scattered throughout their everyday contexts.

Such an instructional approach also builds partnerships for learning among stakeholders in education: teachers and families, colleges and employers. In addition, distributed learning conserves scarce financial resources by maximizing the educational use of information devices (televisions, computers, telephones, video games) in homes and workplaces.

Emerging information technologies make possible an extraordinary range of cognitive, affective, and social "affordances"--enhancements of human capabilities potentially of great power for distributed learning. At the same time they have definite limits for expression and communication.

Much study is needed to develop the new kinds of rhetoric necessary to make these emerging media effective for learning. It will also take much time and effort to design appropriate mixes of information tools and virtual environments for specific groups of learners, particular contents, and given sets of educational goals.

A graduate course on distributed learning I teach illustrates one approach for exploring these issues. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Multiple-Media Difference
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.