Management and Prevention of Personal Problems in Older Adolescents Via Schematic Maps and Peer Feedback

By Peel, Jennifer L.; Dansereau, Donald F. | Adolescence, Summer 1998 | Go to article overview

Management and Prevention of Personal Problems in Older Adolescents Via Schematic Maps and Peer Feedback


Peel, Jennifer L., Dansereau, Donald F., Adolescence


ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to provide a basis for enhancing personal development in older adolescents by examining the usefulness of two information-processing tools in solving personal problems: schematic maps and peer feedback. Ninety-five college students were assigned to either a schematic map group or an essay group, and further subdivided into groups that worked alone or with a vicarious partner. Assessment consisted of analyzing and generating alternatives to a scenario involving a college student with a drinking problem. Results indicated that alternative generation, an important step in the problem-solving process, is susceptible to experimental manipulation. Schematic maps facilitate the generation of wider-ranging, viable, synergistic alternatives to an uncomfortable situation. Maps help illustrate the complex systems within which problems occur and how patterns of behavior are maintained through reinforcement. Peer feedback may provide information about strategies for the development of additional options.

The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of enhancing older adolescents' problem-solving skills using two information-processing tools: schematic maps and peer feedback. Specifically, the types of personal problems addressed were those that are recurring but have not yet reached a clinical threshold. To distinguish these from more serious and chronic problems, such as alcoholism, they are referred to as recurring, uncomfortable situations or states of being.

The process of dealing with these uncomfortable situations can be viewed as preventive maintenance or early intervention and treatment. Implementation may nip potential difficulties in the bud and thus reduce or eliminate the onset of more severe problems (e.g., drug abuse). Also, dealing with these uncomfortable situations may allow the individual to develop strategies that will facilitate the resolution of more complex difficulties.

The present research was based on the assumption that personal problems are different from objective problems in two ways. First, they rely on what may be a poorly organized database for solutions (i.e., episodic memory). Second, personal problems are embedded within systems of behavior. Based on previous work in the domain of cognitive psychology, several tools have been developed to address the peculiarities of personal problems. These tools are designed to schematize episodic memory and provide a means of representing complex systems in an understandable form. Two specific tools were utilized in the present study. The first, schematic maps, provides a framework for organizing information regarding episodes involving personal discomfort, adjustment, or coping problems. The second, peer feedback, allows individuals to compare problem-solving strategies and solution alternatives.

The Unique Nature of Personal Problems

One of the first issues to be addressed in designing problem-solving approaches is the unique characteristics and difficulties associated with personal problems.

Episodic memory as a database for personal problems. Typically, solutions to personal problems rely on information from episodic memory, which consists of events and experiences. Tulving (1983) points out several characteristics of episodic memory that may hamper personal problem solving. He suggests that the episodic memory system is loose and spatially/temporally organized. Retrieval difficulties caused by this lack of organizational structure may reduce the availability of critical information and the ability to make inferences.

Further, individuals tend to feel an intense subjective verticality about events they have experienced and subsequently retrieved from episodic memory (Tulving, 1983). Seldom is anyone convinced that an event happened in a manner different from what they remember, yet there is no way for the individual to judge the absolute accuracy of that memory because it is impossible to compare the recollection with the actual event. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Management and Prevention of Personal Problems in Older Adolescents Via Schematic Maps and Peer Feedback
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.