Current Disciplinary Practices with Handicapped Students: Suspensions and Expulsions

By Rose, Terry L. | Exceptional Children, November 1988 | Go to article overview

Current Disciplinary Practices with Handicapped Students: Suspensions and Expulsions


Rose, Terry L., Exceptional Children


Current Disciplinary Practices with Handicapped Students: Suspensions and Expulsions

Maintaining discipline in the schools may have been an issue since public education began (Viti, 1987). For 16 of the last 18 years, the U.S. public has ranked discipline as the number one problem in the public schools (Gallup, 1986). Politicians increasingly call for get-tough disciplinary policies as the cure for many of education's and society's problems (Kraig, 1987). Teachers, too, view disciplinary problems as a significant concern: In a recent survey, 49% of the responding teachers stated that school discipline was either a very serious or fairly serious issue (Gallup, 1984). Despite the interest and concern generated by this issue, however, the question remains: What procedures or set of procedures constitute effective discipline?

The question of how to discipline handicapped learners has added to the potentially stressful decisions for general educators in most schools. Since the late 1970s, general education teachers and principals have been expected to implement disciplinary procedures with disruptive handicapped learners, often with little guidance regarding effective practices or the rights of individual students, as mandated by P.L. 94-142 and interpreted in a number of judicial decisions.

Several court cases have helped to clarify the legal perspective for public school instructional and administrative personnel, especially regarding out-of-school suspensions (e.g., Board of Education of Peoria v. Illinois State Board of Education, 1982; Goss v. Lopez, 1975; Stanley v. School Administrative District No. 40, 1980) and expulsions (e.g., Blue v. New Haven Board of Education, 1981; S-1 v. Turlington, 1981; Stuart v. Nappi, 1978). Emerging principles based on these and other cases, described by Leone (1985) and Simon (1984), indicate that handicapped learners may receive an out-of-school suspension for up to 10 days, using the same procedures as those used for nonhandicapped students for either emergency or normal reasons, because these "short-term" suspensions have not been viewed as changing the learner's educational placement.

Out-of-school suspensions for more than 10 days may be implemented if the handicapped student is endangering himself or others, but only after a meeting of a special team charged with determining whether the behavior was related to the learner's handicap and to ensure due process. Handicapped learners may be expelled in appropriate circumstances, if procedural guidelines have been followed, with two restrictions: (a) the learner may not be expelled if the specialized team has determined that the punishable behavior is related to the learner's handicapping condition, and (b) complete termination of educational services is not allowed during the exclusion period. Leone (1985) and Simon (1984) concluded that the learner's Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is the most effective instrument for dealing with disciplinary issues, because behaviors related to the learner's handicap should be anticipated and identified in the IEP.

The legal guidelines set forth in the cited and related cases have not been well received by some professionals. They view the requirement of determining whether the behavior was related to the learner's handicap as futile and argue disciplinary practices should be the same for all students (e.g., Dagley, 1982). Others, though not addressing exclusion of handicapped students specifically, have suggested the perceived benefits of these practices, such as reducing the chances of recurrence of the misbehavior for a short time, protecting individuals and property, helping students to understand the seriousness of their misbehavior and thereby helping them to discriminate appropriate from inappropriate behaviors, and serving as a deterrent to other students (Garibaldi, 1979; Neill, 1976). However, the mandates of the protective legislation enacted to protect the rights of handicapped individuals offer persuasive arguments against this line of thought and the historical abuses it recalls. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Current Disciplinary Practices with Handicapped Students: Suspensions and Expulsions
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.