The War on Addiction: Abuse in America: Fresh Research and Shifting Views of Treatment Are Opening New Fronts in a Deadly Struggle
Maybe you've seen the movie: Dad, an Ohio judge and the nation's new drug czar, needs a cocktail to "take the edge off." Mom has her own youthful history with drugs and scoffs at Dad's suggestion that she was just "experimenting." Their 16-year-old daughter, a lovely straight-A student at a fancy private school, starts freebasing cocaine, then turns tricks to pay for her habit.
Whatever happens next month at the Oscars, the movie "Traffic" is a cinematic IV injection--a jolting reminder of the horrors of drugs and the drug war. After a campaign in which both parties all but ignored the drug issue, director Steven Soderbergh manages the nearly impossible feat of illuminating a national debate without taking sides (both reformers and hard-liners like the movie), beyond attaching a patina of hopelessness to the whole issue.
Actually, the future may not be quite as bleak as the film suggests. While policy revolutions--like legalizing narcotics or somehow eradicating supply--are pipe dreams, change is coming to the world of addiction and drug policy. Voters in several states are far ahead of the politicians, approving ballot initiatives that offer more treatment options. "Drug courts" that allow judges to impose substance-abuse treatment in place of jail have grown fiftyfold since the mid-1990s, part of a new understanding that, even with frequent relapses, treatment is much less expensive for society than prison and interdiction. All of the former drug czars as well as the man rumored to be President Bush's choice for the job, retired Col. James McDonough, stress treatment and demand-side reduction as their first priority, though the funding decisions have yet to catch up to the new rhetoric.
More broadly, this relatively peaceful interlude in the nation's drug history (half as many regular drug users as in 1979 and the crack epidemic ebbing) offers a rare chance to rethink old approaches not just to renewed threats like heroin but to the mother of all abused substances--alcohol. Science is yielding clues about the "hedonic region" of the brain, while breakthrough medications and greater understanding of the mental-health problems that underlie many addictions are giving therapists new tools.
Addiction is hardly an American affliction, but it sometimes looks that way. The master narrative of public life these days seems to be all about abuse and recovery, with inner demons replacing outer enemies or forces of nature as the dramatic foils of choice. After leaving drug rehab, Jennifer Capriati stages an improbable tennis comeback to win the Australian Open. Robert Downey Jr. relapses once again, a haunting symbol of the limits of treatment. The departing president of the United States appears to have been addicted to sex, while the new president--by his own account--once had a drinking problem.
In the real America, the toll is incalculable. Consider Areina Garcia, 34, mother of four children ages 1, 2, 4 and 7. She admits she was "selling my ass for drugs" and getting high in front of her kids. She didn't stop until her husband reported her to family court. Or Brian Kelly, 31, who started drinking at 8 while tailgating with his alcoholic parents at Notre Dame games. His crack habit landed him in a $14,000-a-month "country club" treatment program with a pool, tennis courts and nothing but what he calls "appeasement" of his problem. Now both Garcia and Kelly are midway through a no-nonsense, 12- to 15-month residential treatment program at Phoenix House, still at real risk of relapse, but with at least a fighting chance to salvage their lives.
The aggregate consequences of addiction are staggering. Consider that the number of inmates in American prisons more than tripled over the last 20 years to nearly 2 million, with 60 percent to 70 percent testing positive for substance abuse on arrest. These inmates are the parents of 2.4 million children, all of whom are disproportionately likely to follow their parents to jail. …