Service Quality Assessment Scale: An Instrument for Evaluating Service Quality of Health Fitness Clubs

By Lam, Eddie T. C.; Zhang, James J. et al. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 2001 | Go to article overview

Service Quality Assessment Scale: An Instrument for Evaluating Service Quality of Health Fitness Clubs


Lam, Eddie T. C., Zhang, James J., Frankiewicz, Ronald, Pease, Dale C., Jensen, Barbara E., Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Eddie T C. Lam, Cleveland State University, James J. Zhang, Ronald Frankiewicz, Dale C. Pease, University of Houston, and Barbara E. Jensen, Springfield College

Numerous researchers have indicated that service quality may be a key factor affecting customer satisfaction, consumption behavior, and even exercise adherence of health-fitness club members. However, a limited number of studies have been conducted to provide specific information for health club administration, which in part may have been due to the lack of an instrument with good measurement properties and practical application values. This study was designed to develop the Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) to evaluate customer perception and satisfaction toward service and program quality of health-fitness clubs through four phases: (a) formulation of the preliminary scale, (b) a pilot study, (c) test administration and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and (4) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The preliminary scale with 46 items in a Likert 7-point scale was formulated through a serious of steps, including review of literature, interviewing a panel of seven experts, a focus group of five health cl ub administrators or members, interviewing 15 health club members, on-site observations, and test of content validity by the panel of experts. For the pilot study, a sample of health club members (N = 234) responded to the preliminary scale. Conducting an EFA with alpha extraction and promax rotation, six factors (Staff, Program, Locker Room, Physical Facility, Workout Facility, and Child Care) with 42 items were determined when using an eigenvalue equal to or greater than 1.0 and a factor loading equal to or greater than .40 without double loading as criteria. …

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