Markets, Standards, Teaching, and Teacher Education

By Apple, Michael W. | Journal of Teacher Education, May 2001 | Go to article overview

Markets, Standards, Teaching, and Teacher Education


Apple, Michael W., Journal of Teacher Education


SITUATING TEACHER EDUCATION IN ITS LARGER CONTEXT

There have been numerous proposals to reform teacher education within the past decade. Although many of them have been quite thoughtful, a considerable amount of the discussion has taken place in something of a social and ideological vacuum. It has not been reflective enough about the major changes that have been taking place in curriculum, teaching, and evaluation in schools in many nations. Yet, these transformations are already having a profound effect on the ways teaching is done, who controls it, and what schools themselves are for. Without a serious examination of these transformations, we will be unable to prepare our current and future teachers for a world in which the rules have changed (Liston & Zeichner, 1990). In this article, I want to focus on these changes, especially the forces of what I have called "conservative modernization," in which what schools are for, how they are funded and controlled, and whom they are to serve are moving in specific directions (Apple, 2000b, 2001). Conservative modernization is the result of a tense and sometimes contradictory blend of three kinds of reforms--neoliberal market-based reforms, neoconservative reforms involving strong central cultural authority, and new middle-class emphases on technical and managerial solutions to moral and political problems.(1)

The effects of this combination of neoliberal, neoconservative, and managerial tendencies on teacher education are and will be increasingly visible. In the United States, England, and many other nations, there are proposals to totally deregulate teacher education so that competition among institutions of higher education, private for-profit training agencies, and school districts themselves will supposedly reinvigorate teacher education and make these programs more cost-effective and efficient.

The influence of this approach is visible in the arguments for deregulation advanced by the Fordham Foundation, for example. For groups such as this, the free market, by itself, will solve problems by deregulating both teacher hiring and teacher education. In such marketized plans, quality will be guaranteed by directly relating teacher skills to student performance on standardized tests (Darling-Hammond, 2000, p. 176).

At the same time these more market-based approaches are growing internationally, there are concomitant moves to create uniformity and a system of more centralized authority over what counts as important teacher skills and knowledge. Some of these are seemingly partly progressive, and others are attempts to centralize control over what teachers are to do even though their rhetoric is couched in the language of increasing professional competence. Reports such as What Matters Most are often seen to be at the more progressive end of this continuum and are indicative of the move toward higher standards and higher levels of "professionalization" in teacher education (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future [NCTAF], 1996). Although many of NCTAF's recommendations have been seen as controversial or have been largely ignored by many colleges, universities, and school districts, theirs and similar documents have been seen as major advances by a number of well-known advocates for uniform and higher standards. In their minds, these recommendations will lead to important gains in professionalism and respect among other things (see, e.g., Darling-Hammond, 2000; Yinger & Hendricks-Lee, 2000).

All of these latter efforts are occurring at a time when an increasingly active state is engaged in policing the results of teacher education programs, adding more standardized tests for teachers and future teachers to take, and attempting to ensure that teacher education programs are held publicly accountable for their "products." Thus, state report cards are being produced wherein teacher education programs are ranked and placed in situations in which they, in essence, are competing with each other for both funding and status. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Markets, Standards, Teaching, and Teacher Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.