Therapeutic Recreation's Role in Meeting the Needs of Heart Transplant Patients

By Holt, Marieke; Ashton-Shaeffer, Candace | Parks & Recreation, May 2001 | Go to article overview

Therapeutic Recreation's Role in Meeting the Needs of Heart Transplant Patients


Holt, Marieke, Ashton-Shaeffer, Candace, Parks & Recreation


What does therapeutic recreation have in common with the Tin Man from the Wizard of Oz? Therapeutic recreation joined him in a search for a heart, and found that there are many people currently waiting for a heart transplant who can use and need our services!

In the classic movie, The Wizard of Oz, the Tin Man is in search of a new heart. The Tin Man feels he is anxious and insecure without a heart. He so eloquently stated, "I pray you to give me a heart, that I may be as other men." The Tin Man's search for a heart continues today as people waiting for a heart transplant experience similar feelings of insecurity and anxiety. A new and exciting area of service for therapeutic recreation is heart transplantation. Although not extensively utilized in the past, therapeutic recreation is now being provided as a treatment service in numerous heart transplant units throughout the U. S. Many psychosocial issues, such as depression, anxiety, boredom, and the need for perceived freedom arise during the waiting period for a heart transplant. Therapeutic recreation services are perfectly suited to assuage these issues. This article will provide an overview of heart transplantation and the role of therapeutic recreation for patients waiting for a heart transplant.

Heart Transplantation

Persons with chronic, or long-term heart failure, or cardiomyopathy who have not responded to conventional methods may be candidates for heart transplantation (American Heart Association, 1999). Persons with end-stage heart failure usually have a prognosis of less than one year to live. Numerous studies have identified that heart transplantation is now the treatment of choice for end-stage heart disease. Heart transplantation is the process of removing the sick or diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy, human heart from a deceased donor. United National Organ Sharing (UNOS) (2000) reported that currently 4,118 people are listed as waiting for a heart transplant. They also report that in 1999, 2,185 heart transplants were performed. The one-year survival rate for a heart transplant is 87%.

The roster of potential heart transplant candidates is maintained nationally by UNOS. Hospitalized heart transplant candidates are ranked as ambulatory class III or class IV on the New York Heart Association Functional Classification of Heart Disease scale (see Table 1). After successful transplant, the recipient is listed as class I or class II. UNOS (2000) identified 77% of heart transplantation patients are male, 54.9% have type O blood, 53.8% are 50-64 years old, and 78% are Caucasian.

TABLE 1. NEW YORK ASSOCIATION FUNCTIONAL
CLASSIFICATION OF HEART DISEASE

Classification   Description

CLASS I          Patients with cardiac disease but without
                 resulting limitations of physical activity

                 Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue
                 fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, or anginal pain

CLASS II         Patients with cardiac disease that results in a
                 slight limitation of physical activity

                 Patients are comfortable at rest, but ordinary
                 physical activity results in fatigue, palpitation,
                 dyspnea, or anginal pain

CLASS III        Patients with cardiac disease that results in a
                 marked limitation of physical activity

                 Patients are comfortable at rest, but
                 less-than-ordinary physical activity results in
                 fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, or anginal pain

CLASS IV         Patients with cardiac disease that results in an
                 inability to carry on any physical activity without
                 discomfort; fatigue, palpitation, dyspnea, or
                 anginal pain may be present; if any physical activity
                 is undertaken, symptoms increase

(Sadowsky, 1996, p. 501)

To be accepted as a heart transplant candidate, the person must have end stage cardiac disease, and must have failed more conservative treatment measures (Rauch & Kneen, 1989). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Therapeutic Recreation's Role in Meeting the Needs of Heart Transplant Patients
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.