Early Relationships among Self-Regulatory Constructs: Theory of Mind and Preschool Children's Problem Solving

By Sperling, Rayne A.; Walls, Richard T. et al. | Child Study Journal, December 2000 | Go to article overview

Early Relationships among Self-Regulatory Constructs: Theory of Mind and Preschool Children's Problem Solving


Sperling, Rayne A., Walls, Richard T., Hill, Lee Ann, Child Study Journal


This study was designed to address relationships among self-regulatory constructs in young children. Relationships were investigated among (a) the theory of mind constructs of intention and false-belief, (b) problem solving ability, (c) metacognitive regulation, and (d) strategy use in 39 preschool-aged children. Findings indicate generally expected age-appropriate differences on theory of mind tasks, problem solving, metacognitive regulation, and strategy use. Significant correlations are evident between strategy use and theory of mind, and metacognitive regulation and theory of mind. A moderate, but nonsignificant correlation is found between strategy use and metacognitive regulation. The findings across tasks indicate preschool children possess regulatory capability in a variety of domains and indicate that self-regulation and strategy use is evident on problem-solving tasks in preschool learners.

If one were to ask what metacognitive self-regulation is evident in children, many researchers and theorists would have an answer. The answers, however, would probably vary considerably. Researchers investigating the emergence of metacognitive regulation in academic domains, for example, might state that metacognition is apparent at the ages of approximately 8 or 10 years (Baker, 1984; Cross & Paris, 1988). Some researchers investigating children's other reflective abilities, however, would state that children display metacognitive regulation as early as two or three years of age (Robinson, 1983).

One possible reason for this apparent inconsistency is that regulatory abilities have been investigated on several different types of tasks. Children's metacognitive regulation, for example, has been investigated on academic (deSousa & Oakhill, 1996; Swanson, 1990; VanLeuvan & Wang, 1997), social (Butterworth & Light, 1982), and memory (Schneider & Pressley, 1989; Schneider, Schlagmueller, & Vise, 1998) tasks. Additional, often applied, work has investigated self-regulation of behavior (e.g., Shimabukuro, Prater, Jenkins, & Edelen-Smith, 1999). Further, research investigating children's theory of mind (Astington, 1993; Bartsch & Estes, 1996; Frye & Moore, 1991; Perner, 1992) and private speech (Daugherty & Logan, 1996; Diaz & Berk, 1992) has also investigated self-regulation.

Metacognition has been defined in numerous ways (e.g., Brown, 1978; Cross & Paris, 1988; Flavell, 1979; Flavell, Miller, & Miller, 1993; Hacker, 1998; Nelson & Narnes, 1996). Although other frameworks of metacognition are present in the literature (e.g., Nelson & Names, 1996), research on children's metacognition generally employs one of two frameworks. One framework, initiated by Flavell (Flavell, 1979; Flavell, Miller, & Miller, 1993), and further developed by Hacker (1998), presents metacognition as including metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences, as well as goals and strategies or actions. Metacognitive knowledge includes task, person, and strategy components. Metacognitive experiences include feelings of understanding and may be the impetus of strategy implementation (Flavell, 1979), with these strategies implemented to facilitate goal attainment (Dunlosky, 1998; Hacker 1998). Flavell and colleagues referred to these components generally as metacognitive monitoring and self-regulation (1 993).

The second framework initiated by Brown (1978), and further delineated and discussed in later work (Baker & Brown, 1984; Cross & Paris, 1988; Jacobs & Paris, 1987; Paris, Cross, & Lipson, 1984; Pereira-Laird & Deane, 1997; Schraw & Dennison, 1994) also suggests two components: Knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The knowledge component includes declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge of cognition. The regulation of cognition component includes constructs such as planning, monitoring, and evaluation.

The current study considers both Dunlosky's (1998) discussion of constructs and definitions, and incorporates aspects of both these frameworks and defines metacognition as a three-part construct. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Early Relationships among Self-Regulatory Constructs: Theory of Mind and Preschool Children's Problem Solving
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.