A Neural Network Approach to Identifying Adolescent Adjustment

By Nair, Jyotsna; Nair, Satish S. et al. | Adolescence, Spring 2001 | Go to article overview

A Neural Network Approach to Identifying Adolescent Adjustment


Nair, Jyotsna, Nair, Satish S., Kashani, Javad H., Reid, John C., Rao, Venkatesh G., Adolescence


ABSTRACT

This study examined the relationship between the quality of adjustment in adolescents and a set of psychiatric diagnoses, personality traits, parental bonding, and social support variables. One hundred fifty adolescents were administered the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory, the Parental Bonding Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. A neural network approach was then utilized, and it was found that several of the variables (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Societal Conformity) had a significant role in classifying adolescents into three groups: maladjusted, nominally adjusted, and well-adjusted.

Few studies have identified risk and protective factors in both dysfunctional and well-adjusted adolescents. Kashani et al. (1987) found that well-adjusted youths had goad self-concepts, caring parents, and satisfactory social support systems. Using the same sample, the present study sought to determine whether a neural network approach would offer additional information. A neural network is a nonlinear regression model that can predict outputs (or effect variables) using several inputs (or cause variables) and quantify complex relationships between such cause-and-effect variables (McCord-Nelson & Illingworth, 1991). Neural networks have been applied in several areas, including mental health (Cohen & Servan-Schreiber, 1992; Kashani et al., 1996; Nair et al., 1996). Here, a neural network model was created to ascertain how various measures would relate to adolescents characterized as well-adjusted, nominally adjusted (some dysfunctions), and maladjusted (serious dysfunctions).

METHOD

Data Collection

One hundred fifty youths between 14 and 16 years of age were drawn from a sample of 1,700 midwestern public school students. There were equal numbers of boys and girls. Ninety-five percent were Caucasian, and the rest were Asian or African American. Other characteristics are described in the study by Kashani et al. (1987).

Diagnoses were made based on data collected from adolescents and their parents using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA; Herjanic et al., 1975; Herjanic & Reich, 1982). The DICA diagnoses used in this study were Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety, and Major Depressive Disorder (Depression). The Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI; Millon et al., 1972) was used to obtain information about adolescents' personalities. The Millon scales used were Cooperative, Forceful, Sensitive, Personal Esteem, Social Tolerance, Family Rapport, Impulse Control, and Societal Conformity. Additional inputs to the neural network were the Parental Care and the Parental Overprotection scales of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI; Parker et al., 1979), and the Satisfaction Rating and Total Number of People scales of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ; Sarason et al., 1983). Gender was also included in the neural network model, bringing the number of inputs to 17 (see Figur e 1).

The 150 adolescents were divided into three groups, based on clinical interviews conducted by expert psychiatrists (Kashani et al., 1987), and these were used as the model outputs. Group 1 consisted of troubled adolescents with psychiatric disorders. These maladjusted adolescents had one or more DSM-III diagnoses, experienced impaired functioning, and were in need of treatment. Group 2 consisted of nominally adjusted adolescents. They were not free of symptoms, but were not in need of treatment. Group 3 consisted of well-adjusted adolescents. They were free of psychiatric syndromes or symptoms. Seven adolescents were dropped from the analyses due to missing data.

Neural Network Modeling

A multilayered back-propagation neural network was used (17 inputs from each of the 143 adolescents, comprising the input patterns, and the three binary outputs). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

A Neural Network Approach to Identifying Adolescent Adjustment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.