Hispanic Students at Risk: Do We Abdicate or Advocate?

By Fradd, Sandra H.; Correa, Vivian I. | Exceptional Children, October 1989 | Go to article overview

Hispanic Students at Risk: Do We Abdicate or Advocate?


Fradd, Sandra H., Correa, Vivian I., Exceptional Children


Hispanic Students at Risk: Do We Abdicate or Advocate?

ABSTRACT: With the rapid growth of Hispanic student populations in the United Stages comes a corresponding increase in the number of students who have limited English proficiency as well as disabilities. Specific educational interventions, such as programs of English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) and bilingual instruction, are needed to enable these students to enter the mainstream. The chief obstacles to bilingual special education are the paucity of personnel training programs that include cross-cultural communication, and a lack of awareness of the need for these services. Transdisciplinary teaming is a cost-effective, appropriate approach to providing the services which both handicapped and at risk language minority students require. It is our expectation that every person in America be educated to his or her fullest potential, that will result only when all students stay in school, and this year's first graders go on to graduate in the year 2000.

Lauro F. Cavasos

U.S. Secretary of Education

January 1989 Will at-risk Hispanic students and those with disabilities be among America's appropriately educated population in the year 2000? Is this country moving toward advocating for effective education for Hispanic students by committing resources to meeting the needs of this special population? Or is the United States abdicating by resigning to a slowly changing system plagued with prejudices, vague fears, and misunderstanding?

The time has come to answer these questions. The Hispanic student population entering public schools is rapidly growing, and with that growth come increasing numbers of students with disabilities. Serving at-risk Hispanic students and their families has become one of the most critical concerns for many public schools across this country. Although demographic data clearly indicate that the population of Hispanic students in this country is on the rise, professionals are only now realizing the complex ramifications these data will have on schools serving Hispanic students with disabilities. Revitalization and reform is needed now in special education to meet the complex needs of Hispanic students and their families.

The common issues of nonbiased assessment, second-language acquisition, and bilingual education continue to be critical in understanding the needs of Hispanic students. Educating Hispanic students has become a complex task not only requiring sensitivity to linguistic and cultural differences but also requiring an understanding of early intervention, transdisciplinary teaming, and family involvement. When Hispanic students are at risk or have disabilities, their educational needs become much more complex. A spirit of advocacy must be awakened within special education--and throughout the educational process--to adequately prepare the United States for the surge of Hispanic students with disabilities entering our schools every year. This advocacy effort can serve to assist not only Hispanic students, but all linguistically and culturally diverse students with special needs.

To better understand the present trends in special education as they relate to Hispanic students, one must understand the demographics of the population, the definitions of the terms most commonly used, and the evolution of public policy over recent decades.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND DEFINITIONS

The term Hispanic requires definition and understanding. Literally, it refers to persons from Spain or Spanish-speaking Latin America. However, the term is not easily understood. Persons born in the United States of families of Hispanic heritage are also referred to as Hispanic, whether or not they speak Spanish. Some school systems differentiate students as Hispanic or non-Hispanic by the presence of a Hispanic surname. The use of family names as defining characteristic excludes a large number of students who speak Spanish and includes a large group whose only connection with Spain or Latin America is their last name. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Hispanic Students at Risk: Do We Abdicate or Advocate?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.