Oil Dependence, Urban Vulnerability, and Wealth: A View from Australia
Newman, Peter, World Watch
Cities across the world felt the collapse of the World Trade Center in New York. We all felt immediately vulnerable, fragile, exposed. New York has been not lust a city of pre-eminent financial power, but also a city of refuge for the past century. But what now? Can we learn something about urban sustainability from this new sense of vulnerability?
The September 11 attacks raised a wide range of issues--the politics of global wealth disparities, cultural and religious differences, the globalization agenda, the history of grievances. Beneath them all lies the competition for the Earth's resources. The geological foundation of the vulnerability of our cities is that the last known major oil reserves are in the Middle East. All cities face the prospect of having to import more of their oil from that region if they are to continue using oil.
U.S. cities are particularly vulnerable, as the country imports 2.5 million barrels of oil each day from the Middle East. Despite frantic efforts to find more oil, the United States has been essentially on the downward slope of its production curve for 30 years. Yet, the reaction of many to the terrorist attacks has been to disperse from city centers and find even more remote suburban or exurbon locations, which unfortunately are even more car dependent and require even more oil.
Every city in the world uses oil for transport, but some use much more than others.. U.S. cities consume 431 gallons per person per year; Australian cities 295 gallons; European cities 133 gallons; and Asian cities 49 gallons. Within the United States, there is large variation: residents of the sprawling city of Houston, Texas burn 493 gallons per person, whereas residents of Manhattan, the site of the terrorist attack, use only 90 gallons per person. …