Adolescent Depression and Risk Factors

By Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel et al. | Adolescence, Fall 2001 | Go to article overview

Adolescent Depression and Risk Factors


Field, Tiffany, Diego, Miguel, Sanders, Christopher, Adolescence


ABSTRACT

Seventy-nine high school seniors were administered the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as a questionnaire on parent relationships, peer relationships, positive and negative feelings including suicidal thoughts, and lifestyle variables including academic performance, exercise, and drug use. The group of adolescents who scored above the clinical cutoff for depression on the CES-D (n = 29) had poorer relations with parents. Further, the incidence of paternal depression in that group was greater. The depressed adolescents also had less optimal peer relationships, fewer friends, and were less popular. They experienced less happiness and more frequent suicidal thoughts. They spent less time doing homework, had a lower grade point average, and spent less time exercising. The depressed group also reported more use of marijuana and cocaine. A stepwise regression indicated that physical affection with parents, homework, well-being, exercise, happiness, and parent relations explained 55% of the variance.

Approximately 8% to 10% of adolescents score above the cutoff for clinical depression on self-report measures, such as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the percentage is increasing (Fombonne, 1998; Lewinsohn et al., 1998). Adolescent depression has been associated with poor psychosocial and academic outcomes and increased risk for substance abuse and suicide (Birmaher et al., 1996).

One of the most frequently studied risk variables is relationships with parents. Parents of depressed adolescents have been reported to be less caring (Rey, 1995), to be more negative (Pike & Plomin, 1996), and to provide less support (Hoffman & Su, 1998). In one study in which parent-adolescent interactions were videotaped, parents of depressed adolescents increased their facilitative behavior in response to their adolescents' depressed behavior, suggesting that these parents may be inadvertently reinforcing depressive behavior (Sheeber et al., 1998). Another frequently studied risk factor is parental depression. In one recent study, a greater proportion of depressed adolescents had depressed mothers (47% vs. 18% in the control group), although the rates of paternal depression did not differ between the two groups (Shiner & Marmorstein, 1998). In another study, parental depression increased the risk for medical problems and hospitalization among depressed adolescents (Kramer et al., 1998).

A less frequently studied risk factor for adolescent depression is peer relations, more specifically, loneliness. In a recent investigation of multiple correlates of adolescent depression, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with greater loneliness (r = .65), and loneliness was the first and most significant variable to enter the stepwise regression (Brage et al., 1995).

Invariably, strong relationships are reported between depression and substance use (Aalto-Setaelae et al., 1998; Birmaher et al., 1996). Depression and substance use, in turn, are related to poor academic outcomes (Birmaher, 1996).

The purpose of the present study was to examine frequently explored risk factors for adolescent depression, such as relationships with parents, parental depression, and substance use, as well as less frequently explored factors. The latter were as follows: peer relationships, number of friends, popularity, and dating; feelings of well-being, happiness, and anger; suicidal thoughts; time spent doing homework, working, and exercising; and grade point average.

METHOD

Participants

The participants were 79 high school seniors recruited from a suburban Florida high school. The distribution of participants was 76% Caucasian, 11% Hispanic, 5% Asian, 3% African-American, and 5% other. On average, they were of middle to upper middle socioeconomic status (M = 1.9 on the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Adolescent Depression and Risk Factors
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.