Correctional Initiatives for Maori in New Zealand. (CT Feature)

By Byers, Mark | Corrections Today, February 2002 | Go to article overview

Correctional Initiatives for Maori in New Zealand. (CT Feature)


Byers, Mark, Corrections Today


The New Zealand government is committed to reducing the inequalities that currently divide its society. (1) Reducing recidivism by Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, is a key objective of the New Zealand Department of Corrections and is a direct reflection of its commitment to reduce social inequalities. (2) This article outlines the strategies and programs created by the Department of Corrections to help achieve this goal.

Background

Maori are part of the Polynesian cultures in the South Pacific. They comprise 14.5 percent of the total population of approximately 3.7 million people in New Zealand. Thirty-five percent of Maori are younger than 15, compared to 23 percent of the total New Zealand resident population. (3)

Traditional Maori society is based on kinship groups: hapu iwi and whanau. (See the Glossary on Page 26 for an explanation of these and other Maori terms.) Hapu, iwi and whanau are related through their genealogy to common ancestors and the land. These kinship ties and relationships to tribal lands still are integral to Maori society today.

In 1840, Maori signed the Treaty of Waitangi with the British Crown to enable the peaceful acquisition of land for settlement and to ensure that immigrants could come in peace to live in New Zealand. In return, the Crown was to respect Maori authority over its lands, fisheries, forests and other aspects of Maori culture, and extend British citizenship to Maori people. (4)

Since then, Maori culture has undergone major change as a result of colonization. The negative effects have been a reduced population due to the introduction of new diseases, the confiscation of Maori-owned land, which inhibited the ability of Maori to maintain and develop a strong economic base, and cultural alienation due to discouragement of language and traditional customs. Colonization and the subsequent urbanization of Maori also have contributed to diminishing the role of traditional institutions such as hapu, iwi and whanau, in governing conduct. (5)

Department of Corrections

The Department of Corrections manages custodial and noncustodial sentences imposed by the courts. This includes prison sentences, periodic detention, home detention, and community service and supervision. The department also provides information to the judicia and administers the Parole Board and the District Prisons Board.

There are 17 Public Prisons Service institutions; the Auckland Central Remand Prison, which is managed by Australasian Correctional Management; 15 Community Probation Service area offices and 143 service sites, which include service centers, reporting centers and periodic detention centers; eight Psychological Service offices; 14 special treatment units; and a head office.

Maori and Corrections

Maori are disproportionately represented in the correctional population. They comprise 53 percent of all offenders serving custodial sentences, 48 percent of all offenders serving community-based sentences, 59 percent of all female inmates and 51 percent of all male inmates. (6,7)

There has been little research that adequately explains the causes of this disproportionate offending rate. Moana Jackson, (8) a well-respected and influential lawyer, asserts that Maori offenders should be viewed differently from non-Maori offenders because there are cultural forces and particular influences involved that are unique to being Maori. Jackson refers to the devastating effects of colonization and the bias of systemic responses, such as police bias and judicial sentencing trends, which increase the likelihood of Maori entering the criminal justice system.

Since its separation from the other justice agencies in 1995, the Department of Corrections has been committed to reducing recidivism and sees partnership with Maori as essential in achieving this goal.

Organizational Strategies

To increase organizational capability to become more responsive to the needs of Maori and to support the goal of reducing recidivism by Maori, the Department of Corrections developed a number of strategies, as outlined below:

Treaty of Waitangi Policy Statement and Implementation Plan. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Correctional Initiatives for Maori in New Zealand. (CT Feature)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.