Khadiga Elsayed Saeed (1999) the Impact of Male Out-Migration on Women's Role and Status in Sudan. M.SC. in Gender and Development. Ahfad University for Women. (Research Notes)
Al, Mahasin Abdel, Ahfad Journal
The study dealt with the question of the positive and negative effects of the husband's out-migration on their wives role and status beside the family's conditions.
The study clarified that the economic crises in the Sudan are behind the general tendency of migration.
The objectives are:
1- To examine the extent and nature of the impact of the husbands out-migration on the family especially on the wife's and husband's relationship.
2- To find out whether wives are empowered or not in matters of controlling the family affairs, that is children's education, health and other family matters.
3- To provide information on the status of out-migrants' wives.
The data was collected from "El Thowra"; one of the big residential areas in Omdurman Town where there are 168 migrant households. The exact sample was 33 out-migrants households.
Sudanese out-migration started back in history but now it is increasing to all parts of the world. The international economic, cultural and political interrelations have played an important role in the flow of people between countries. International migration is linked to such interrelations both affected and effected by the process of development.
In the 1970's and due to the increasing cost of oil prices and the resulting out boom in the oil exporting countries of North Africa and the Middle East. Here, the Sudanese out-migration increased and ranged between 26000-52000 or more. But since 1975 onwards, out-migration has largely increased according to economic crises, low wages, unemployment, inflation and the peoples desire to improve their standard of living. While in the 1980's the out-migrants level had reached an estimate of 250,000 to 800,000 or more.
The family is viewed as a social- group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction. Whereas, traditionally the man in the family is identified with the role of the breadwinner, while the woman has the role of housekeeper and child raiser. This belief has occurred through the socialization process, where the parents are the first transmitters of socialization, through which the children learn the norms, beliefs and the requirements of the society. …