Smoking Behavior, Information Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures

By Albaum, Gerald; Baker, Kenneth G. et al. | The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Summer 2002 | Go to article overview

Smoking Behavior, Information Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures


Albaum, Gerald, Baker, Kenneth G., Hozier, George C., Rogers, Robert D., The Journal of Consumer Affairs


This paper uses a hierarchical decision process model, uses of information, and a theory of consumption values as a strategic framework for evaluating the general failure of intervention strategies for teenage smoking initiation. Extremely high smoking consideration-to-trial rates and rapid cessation by occasional smokers provide narrow but unused strategic opportunities for intervention. Use of information sources varies by stage of model with interpersonal sources dominating consideration, trial, and cessation stages and mass media showing only a slightly increasing use in cessation compared to the earlier stages. The decision process model and consumption values are necessary for planning strategic interventions. Existing intervention programs are not appropriately targeted in the decision process. Programs should be developed to reduce the smoking consideration to trial rates in younger children and to encourage rapid cessation in older teenagers. The use of either print or broadcast mass media interventi on programs is not supported.

Continuing high levels of teenage tobacco use in the United States and elsewhere cast doubts on the success of public policy interventions and the efficacy of widely held teenage smoking beliefs. While levels of teenage smoking have recently shown a slight decrease, high-school smoking rates are more than one-fourth higher than in 1991, and the percentage of frequent high-school smokers has risen approximately 32% during the same time period (Brooks 2000). Surprisingly, little appears to have changed since 1988, when one group of researchers observed:

In spite of the attention, smoking behavior among adolescents has not decreased appreciably over the past five years, and the most intensive intervention efforts have been judged to be only of modest success (Cleary et al. 1988, p. 137).

In that time frame, teenage smoking prevention programs were described as "modest" and "fragile" and having unwarranted optimism about their potential impact (Cleary et al. 1988, p. 149). Other researchers then questioned government regulations and policies in terms of effectiveness in achieving desired objectives (McAuliffe 1988; Ringold and Calfee 1990; Calfee and Ringold 1992).

Today there is evidence that even total advertising bans may have only a limited effect on teenage smoking behavior (Langreth 1997). and attempts to limit youth access to tobacco have had limited, though not statistically significant, results (Forster et al. 1998). Seigel and Beiner (1997) reviewed two "successful" statewide anti-tobacco campaigns and found neither program reduced smoking initiation among adolescents. Advertising and antismoking information were found to be less important in predicting adolescent smoking levels than peer pressure and prior beliefs. Others have questioned the value of health warning labels for adolescents (Cecil, Evans, and Stanley 1996) and exposure to antismoking messages and advertisements, (Murray, Prokhorov, and Hardy 1994; Pechmann and Tatneshwar 1994). Even the impact of tobacco advertising campaigns such as "Joe Camel" on youth smoking has been recently questioned (Calfee, 2000; Cohen 2000). The ongoing tobacco company legal settlements and recent smoking discouragemen t strategies proposed by the tobacco industry (Beck 1996; Hwang 1995; Freedman and Hwang 1997) seem to be ineffectual as the teenage smoking situation is not improving.

Previous findings that adolescents were smoking at a higher rate led politicians to state that children were condemning themselves to a lifetime of pain and disease (Buckley 1995; Consumer Reports 1995; Hwang 1995), and were interpreted as a continuing and major public policy failure. Teenage tobacco use continues as a major source of preventable disease, a major social problem, and a major pediatric illness, as well as a major growth market for tobacco companies (Public Health Service 1990; Kessler 1995). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Smoking Behavior, Information Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.