Evaluating the Success of Caucasian Fathers in Guiding Adolescents

By Strom, Robert D.; Beckert, Troy E. et al. | Adolescence, Spring 2002 | Go to article overview

Evaluating the Success of Caucasian Fathers in Guiding Adolescents


Strom, Robert D., Beckert, Troy E., Strom, Paris S., Strom, Shirley K., Griswold, Dianne L., Adolescence


A generation ago fathers were characterized as the "forgotten contributors to child development" (Lamb, 1975). The dominant view then was to consider fathers as responsible for influencing children in four ways. First, they were expected to be the main source of income. Currently, 80% of women from two-parent families are employed and contribute to the finances of their household (Shellenberger, 1999). Second, fathers were supposed to provide emotional support for wives who assumed the primary responsibility for child care. However, for every family constellation, supervision of children is being transferred from parents to surrogates (Jackson & Davis, 2000). Third, fathers were advised to perform some housework chores to ease the workload of their spouse. Nevertheless, surveys have consistently determined that most fathers are reluctant to follow this recommendation (Kamo & Cohen, 1998). Finally, fathers were supposed to contribute to the education of their children by continuous interactions with them (Grossman, Golding, & Pollack, 1988). Yet, most youth still spend much less time with fathers than with mothers (Lamb, 1997).

Fortunately, new conditions have emerged that enable fathers in the present environment to better define what is expected of them. A paradigm which urges the acquisition of parenting skills has generated considerable interest in research on father potential. As stereotypes of fathers erode, family educators become more able to address previously lost opportunities to help men increase the benefits they can provide children. A National Center on Fathers and Families has been established (www.ncoff.gse.upenn.edu). Most research about fathers tries to identify common strengths and detect learning needs as a preliminary step toward creating intervention programs. Some aspects of parenting that fathers of adolescents express confusion about are: communication, time management, teaching, frustration, satisfaction, and information needs.

Communication

Effective communication skills allow parents to convey personal beliefs and values while they learn about the concerns and priorities of their children (Larson & Richards, 1995). Good communication between parents and teens is necessary to promote development, but this task presents greater difficulties during adolescence than does interaction at earlier ages. Cognitive and emotional changes are believed to be the reasons adolescents seem overly sensitive to criticism from adults, inclined to misinterpret parent remarks, eager to gain privacy, and less willing to share feelings than when they were younger (Galinsky, 1999; Lewis, 2000).

The receptivity of children to parents' ideas and values could originate in the reciprocal cooperation and openness a parent shows toward the feelings and opinions of the child. In this way parent willingness to attentively listen to a child without distraction or interruption can provide a model for how respectful patterns of communication are established and maintained (Levine, 1997). There often are large discrepancies between what fathers and adolescents view as decision-making options for teens, leading to increased tension, conflict or alienation (Strom, Amukamara, Beckert, Strom, Moore, Strom, & Griswold, 2000).

Use of Time

Successful families may exhibit common strengths whether they are first-marriage couples, step-parents, or single parents of any racial or income group. One of these strengths appears to be spending sufficient time together (Daly, 2001). Time is so crucial because it impacts on all the other traits of a healthy family. Communication, learning, and emotional support decline whenever a family loses control of how it manages time. This may explain why 70% of a national sample of parents reported wanting to spend more time with their children. When invited to identify the most difficult aspect of raising children, 83% of parents agreed it was "being too busy" and "lacking control of their schedule. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Evaluating the Success of Caucasian Fathers in Guiding Adolescents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.