Academic Internships with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: An Experiential Approach to Teaching Human Resource Management

By Elkins, Teri J. | SAM Advanced Management Journal, Summer 2002 | Go to article overview

Academic Internships with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: An Experiential Approach to Teaching Human Resource Management


Elkins, Teri J., SAM Advanced Management Journal


For a number of years, organizations have called for more "relevance" in the educational training of managers to ease students' transitions from the classroom to the workplace (Kleinschrod, 1971). Employers have complained that higher education programs often fall to respond to one of their most basic needs: providing students with skills necessary to function effectively in a business environment (Fitt & Heverly, 1992). One response from universities has been to develope internship programs designed to provide experiences more closely tied to potential work settings (Gabris & Mitchell, 1989). Internships and other cooperative education programs are not new ideas. For some time, companies have used these cooperative education programs to "preview" college students as potential employees (Thiel & Hartley, 1997; Frazee, 1997; Woodward, 1998). However, such programs have not been commonly used in management education to integrate classroom knowledge and application experiences (Galloway & Beckstead, 1995; Buckle y, Wren & Michaelsen, 1992). This underutilization is troubling in light of changes shaping today's business environment.

The need for relevant experiential learning is acute in human resource management curricula. Nowhere can this be seen more clearly than in the interface between human resource management and the legal environment. An in-depth understanding of today's equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws has become critical in human resource management. Collectively, EEO laws affect virtually every human resource management function including recruiting, selection, performance appraisal, compensation, discipline, training, and termination. Although laws such as the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act have been in place for over 30 years, new legislation such as the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Civil Rights Act of 1991 have significantly added to human resource managers' compliance responsibilities. Additionally, current demographic trends indicate that the workforce is becoming more diverse. Women account for about 46% of the workforce, while the number of minorities is expected to rise from 24% in 1995 to 32% by 2020. The workforce is also aging with the number of workers aged 45-54 growing by 54% in the 1990s (Judy & D'Amico, 1997).

Clearly, these increases in diversity create a potentially volatile environment if managers are insufficiently trained in the content and application of employment law. Students must now acquire the knowledge and skills to design and implement human resource policies without violating today's EEO laws. While traditional management classes are important for providing students with basic academic knowledge of EEO laws and diversity issues, such traditional methods alone may not fully develop essential skills. Therefore, to integrate basic classroom knowledge with skill-building experiences, an academic internship course was created through the cooperative efforts of the University of Houston (UH) and the Houston District Office of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the pedagogical underpinnings and structural design of the internship and recommend this type of course as an experiential approach to teaching human resource management.

Academic Internships in Higher Education

In response to employers' calls for more relevance in education, universities have begun to offer academic internship courses in which students work for a company or agency and receive course credit in lieu of monetary compensation. These types of internships have been used successfully in a number of municipalities but, overall, are underutilized by government agencies (Bell, 1994). Some faculty, moreover, have been critical of giving course credit for internships (Ciofalo, 1989). An often-voiced concern is that internship experiences may not be providing sufficient academic value to warrant credit toward a degree (Fitt & Heverly, 1992). Faculty are understandably hesitant to award academic credit to students simply for working.

Therefore, to gain the endorsement of higher education institutions, academic internships must make observable contributions to students' overall education. The education literature suggests ways of designing experiential courses to ensure that students benefit academically. According to Kolb's Experiential Learning Model, learning occurs when students progress through four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation (Kolb, 1984). As described in the remainder of the paper, the UH/EEOC internship course was designed to include components that lead students through each of these stages, creating a unique and academically valuable learning experience.

Course Design and Implementation

* Internship Site

Overview of the EEOC. The mission of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is "to promote equal opportunities in employment through administrative and judicial enforcement of the federal civil rights laws and through technical assistance" (EEOCa). Congress created the EEOC in 1964 to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Since the agency began operating in 1965, its enforcement responsibilities have significantly expanded and now include the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Title I of the Americans With Disabilities Act, Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991. In 1999, the agency's field offices received over 77,000 claims of employment discrimination and disbursed over $215 million in monetary damages to charging parties (EEOCb).

The Houston District Office. The Houston District Office, one of the agency's field offices, serves 26 counties in southeast Texas. In 1999, this office received 3,750 claims of discrimination and was able to collect and distribute over $8 million in damages to charging parties. The Houston District Office is headed by a District Director and Deputy District Director and has a staff of 82. The office houses an intake unit, four investigative units employing 45 investigators, a legal department staffed by seven attorneys and seven investigative and support personnel, and an internal mediation unit of five mediators. The office also employs an outreach manager charged with the responsibility of educating both employees and employers about their rights and responsibilities created by laws enforced by the agency. Agency employees from each of these areas of the Houston District Office serve as mentors for students in the UH/EEOC internship course.

* Placement Opportunities Within the EEOC

One of the greatest challenges for internship programs is providing students with meaningful work (Woodward, 1998). A common complaint from students in academic internships is that they "have paid for the privilege of doing gopher, dead-end work," (Thiel & Hartley, 1997). In the UH/EEOC course, placements that provide students with critical thinking tasks and mentoring relationships are used to help ensure that students receive the concrete experiences forming the basis of Kolb's (1984) learning process. Critical thinking is an important skill for successful managers and is often overlooked in internship designs (McCormick, 1993). Each of the assignments available to students includes tasks that require critical analysis of discrimination claims filed with the agency, laws enforced by the agency, or the agency's enforcement environment. Each student is assigned to a mentor who works in the intern's area. in the initial stages of the course, the interns typically "shadow" their mentors then gradually perform tasks similar to those of their mentors. It is a well-known rule at the agency that interns will not be placed with mentors who use them as clerical staff.

Intake. The intake unit receives and processes discrimination claims filed with the agency. The primary duties of interns assigned to this unit include: reviewing and analyzing mall-in allegations; interviewing potential charging parties to determine bases and issues of discrimination; and drafting, inputting, and serving charges. Following initial processing in the intake unit, charges are then assigned to investigators in one of the agency's investigative units.

Individual Case Investigation. Individual investigative units process and investigate claims filed by individual charging parties alleging discrimination. Interns assigned to these units perform a wide variety of duties that include corresponding with respondents (companies accused of discrimination) to obtaining position statements and other requested information, communicating with charging parties and witnesses to gather evidence, participating in the evaluation of evidence, and assisting investigators in conducting on-site interviews.

Systemic Case Investigation. The agency's systemic unit focuses on investigating claims filed by classes of charging parties alleging long-term patterns or practices of discrimination. Interns assigned to this unit are involved in creating and maintaining large databases and analyzing data to identify possible discriminatory employment trends. Systemic interns also perform many of the same duties as those assigned to individual investigative units.

Legal. Interns may also be assigned to the agency's legal unit responsible for assessing and preparing both individual and systemic discrimination claims for potential litigation. In this assignment, students assist with investigations and case analyses, and their tasks are similar to those in individual and systemic case investigation. Students assigned to the legal unit also assist the agency's attorneys in conducting legal research, preparing for depositions, and drafting legal correspondence.

Mediation. A number of claims filed with the EEOC are referred to mediation as an alternative to the investigation process. In 1999, the Houston District Office mediated 235 discrimination claims; 78% of these were settled successfully. Because students in the internship program are not certified mediators, interns assigned to the mediation unit do not conduct mediations between charging parties and respondents. They do, however, perform a number of important functions that include contracting parties to offer and explain the mediation option, scheduling and observing mediations, evaluating mediations, and assisting with efforts to increase public awareness of the agency's mediation alternative.

Outreach. Through its outreach unit, the agency provides a wide range of informational materials and technical assistance to individuals and employers who have rights and responsibilities under EEO laws. The primary goal of outreach is to educate the public about the agency and the laws that it enforces. To this end, students assigned to this unit assist the outreach manager in planning and conducting technical assistance programs for employers, preparing educational materials for employees, and assessing outreach needs.

* Personnel

Successful design and implementation of the internship program requires the cooperative efforts of two key personnel: a faculty instructor/coordinator and an agency internship coordinator. The faculty member's duties fall into three categories that include setting academic requirements, recruiting students, and evaluating students and the program. The agency coordinator focuses on determining placement needs within the agency, coordinating intern orientation sessions, and monitoring interns throughout the semester.

* Recruiting Students

The internship course is offered to undergraduate students during the spring, summer, and fall semesters and can accommodate up to 20 students per course. Students are recruited each semester through classroom visits by the faculty instructor/coordinator, class handouts distributed by management faculty, and course information provided by academic advisors. Referrals from former interns are also a valuable recruiting tool. Visits to human resource management classes begin approximately two months prior to the beginning of each semester. During the visits, the faculty instructor/coordinator spends approximately 15-20 minutes in each class distributing information about the internship, describing course requirements, and answering students' questions. Academic advisors and faculty teaching human resource management courses are also given internship information to distribute to students.

Students interested in enrolling are asked to complete an Intern Information Form. To be eligible for the course, students must have earned a grade point average of 2.0 or higher and successfully completed at least one human resource management course. Students must also be available to work at the EEOC for eight hours per week for 15 weeks for a total of 120 hours during the semester in which they are enrolled in the internship. The agency can accommodate interns' work hours on Monday through Friday from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm.

* Internship Orientation

One week prior to the beginning of each semester, students who have enrolled in the internship course are required to attend a five-hour orientation at the EEOC that is organized by the agency's internship coordinator. This coordinator first provides students with an overview of office structure, procedures, and administrative issues, followed by a series of speakers representing areas in which the interns may be placed. The speakers provide descriptions of their areas, discuss current cases and issues they are involved with, and tasks that interns could expect to perform. After hearing all of the speakers, students are asked to submit a prioritized list of their placement preferences. The faculty instructor/coordinator and agency coordinator then make placement decisions based upon area demands and students' preferences, skills, and educational experiences.

* Evaluation of Students

Students in the UH/EEOC internship program receive three management senior-level semester credit hours for successful completion of the course. The interns' grades are comprised of mentor evaluations, weekly journal essays, and a term paper as described below. The faculty instructor/coordinator is responsible for obtaining feedback from the mentors, evaluating the academic components of students' grades, and determining the final course grade.

Weekly Journals. According to Kolb's (1984) Experiential Learning Model, reflective observation is necessary to help students process their concrete experiences. Journal essays have been recommended as one mechanism for facilitating reflective learning in internship programs (McCormick, 1993). Research has found that students who have participated in internship programs that included systematic integration activities such as keeping journals of critical incidents viewed university curriculum as more relevant to organizational contexts and demonstrated the ability to transfer classroom knowledge to the "real world" (Eyler, 1994). To facilitate reflective observation, students in the UH/EEOC internship program submit weekly journal essays to the university instructor. In these essays, students recount their weekly activities, reflect upon their internship experience, and discuss their observations regarding EEO law and its application. In addition to promoting reflective observation, the journal essays help sus tain regular communication between the interns and the instructor in the absence of class meetings. By reading the weekly essays, the instructor monitors students' progress and the quality of their experiences and detects potential problems. The essays compose one-third of the course grade and are evaluated by the faculty instructor/coordinator using a pass/fail system.

Mentor Evaluations. Mentors at the agency provide a mid-term and a final grade for their interns based upon their performance at the agency. The two grades compose one-third of the course grade. At the beginning of each semester, students meet with their mentors to discuss how they will be evaluated. The intern and mentor then sign an Internship Grade Agreement that outlines specific evaluation criteria. Although the grade agreements vary slightly due to differences in tasks across the agency's areas, typical evaluation criteria include quality of task performance, attendance and punctuality, attitude and enthusiasm, communication skills, creativity, honesty, and initiative. On predetermined mid-term and final due dates, students' mentors submit a letter grade as well as a detailed written evaluation of their students to the faculty instructor/coordinator. Mentors also communicate these evaluations to their students.

The most highly weighted factor in the grading process is quality of task performance. In each of the available placements, students are gradually presented with tasks that require Kolb's (1984) abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. For example, after a period of careful mentoring and observation, students assigned to individual investigative units may be asked to evaluate a claim of discrimination. This would involve applying academic knowledge and knowledge acquired at the agency, determining whether a company engaged in discriminatory actions and making recommendations regarding the disposition of the claim. Consistent with Kolb's (1984) abstract conceptualization and active experimentation stages of experiential learning, tasks like this require students to build upon their concrete experiences, assimilate classroom and agency knowledge and reflections, formulate conceptual models for solving problems, and apply their models to novel problems.

Term Paper. The final third of the internship grade gives students an opportunity for partnership learning. This approach emphasizes a partnership between university instructors and students in creating a learning environment (Ramsey & Couch, 1994). Sharing strategies are used in which instructors help students become self-directed learners. This is accomplished by providing instructional guidance while allowing students to make important choices regarding a portion of their learning experience. The goal is for students to identify and academically explore topics related to their internship experiences.

Students in the internship course are required to write a research paper of approximately 10 pages inspired by issues encountered in their internship. The paper gives students the opportunity to identify EEO issues of particular interest to them, set learning objectives and strategies, and conduct research to achieve their objectives. Students are required to submit a description of their proposed topic and learning objectives to the faculty instructor/coordinator at the midpoint of the course -- usually the seventh week. The instructor provides feedback regarding feasibility and research strategies. However, students ultimately decide what they want to learn and design a mechanism for obtaining the desired knowledge. The final paper is submitted to the faculty instructor/ coordinator for grading during the final week of the internship.

Summary and Conclusions

One of the most important concerns of universities and faculty in implementing academic internship is whether students really learn something beyond the traditional classroom. The primary objective of the UH/EEOC academic internship course is to integrate classroom teaching and field-based application opportunities to develop students' human resource management and interpersonal skills and better prepare them for entry into today' workforce. An examination of interns' journal essays indicates that students in UH/EEOC academic internship are indeed learning a great deal from their experiences at the agency and are given numerous opportunities to apply their knowledge to real-world problems. As described below and depicted in Figure 1, journal essays usually advance through four stages during the internship illustrating a progressive learning process. Table 1 contains statements from interns' journals that are representative of these four stages.

Awe: In the initial weeks of the internship, students generally report feeling excitement about potential learning opportunities as well as intimidation and reluctance to engage in critical analysis. During this time, journal essays indicate high levels of intellectual interest in the students' assigned tasks. However, new interns are also a bit reluctant to immediately apply their academic knowledge to their agency assignments.

Appreciation: After initial reports of excitement and intimidation, journal essays begin to reflect an appreciation of the agency's importance. Students begin to realize that employment discrimination is a pervasive problem affecting the lives of real people. By attaching faces and voices to discrimination claims, students view EEO issues as much more than a chapter in their human resource management text. Journals at this stage show an understanding of the agency's importance and indicate that students are eager to learn and appreciate their own roles in carrying out the agency's mission.

Confidence: After a few weeks at the agency, journals usually show that students have become more comfortable with their mentors and assigned tasks. This comfort, coupled with an appreciation of the agency's goals, generally leads to analytical confidence. Students begin to enthusiastically apply academic knowledge and knowledge gained at the agency to their assignments. Journals indicate that, over time, students gain more confidence in their abilities to evaluate discrimination claims and make recommendations regarding claims filed with the agency.

Evaluation: Toward the end of the course, students' journals tend to include reflections on the internship course and assessments of its educational benefits. Journal essays at this stage typically focus on what students have learned throughout the semester and the value of their experiences at the agency. Students generally report that their internships strengthened their basic knowledge of EEO laws and taught them human resource management skills. Journals also indicate that students view the learning experience as highly valuable to their future careers.

As indicated by students' comments, the UH/EEOC course offers a number of benefits to internship participants. Through challenging real-world experience, students are given opportunities to apply laws and human resource management theories. Combining classroom knowledge with field training makes students' academic experiences more meaningful and enhances learning. Students also gain more confidence in their skills and worth to organizations. Although budget constraints limit the agency's ability to hire students at the end of their internships, interns develop valuable professional relationships with agency employees who provide them with networking opportunities and job references. While academic internships can significant benefit students, government agencies such as the EEOC are able to obtain additional staff without an increase in labor costs. This is particularly valuable given current widespread budgetary constraints that are requiring agencies to accomplish more with fewer resources.

Academic internships such as the UH/EEOC course can also provide benefits to participating universities. Field experience can significantly strengthen human resource management curriculum by adding realism, knowledge application opportunities, and hands-on training from practitioners. Additionally, internships can help universities develop important relationships with agencies that can create opportunities for research, curriculum development, and faculty enrichment. The business community may also view human resource management programs with academic internships as highly valuable resulting in increased on-campus recruiting efforts.

Human resource management policies and practices are highly regulated by EEO legislation as well as other important laws focusing on compensation, benefits, safety, and labor issues. Administrative agencies such as the EEOC that enforce employment legislation have a great deal of knowledge and experience to offer human resource management students and are eager to work with universities in designing internship programs. Universities should give serious consideration to implementing academic internships with government agencies as mechanisms for experientially critical human resource management knowledge and skills.

 
Table 1 
 
Interns' Statements Representative of the Four Reflection and Learning 
Stages 
 
Journal State  Statements From Interns' Journals 
 
Stage One:     "I also sat in on the intake unit and listened to what 
Awe            happens when a charging party first first comes in with 
               a complaint. The investigators were really nice and said 
               that it was okay for me to ask questions if I wanted, but 
               of course I stayed quiet and observed their lines of 
               questions. I learned a lot about what the EEOC does and 
               how mediation fits into that framework. I am really 
               excited about what I will be doing this semester." 
 
               "This morning my supervisor handed me an age 
               discrimination case file and the company's response to 
               the EEOC's request for information and asked for my 
               analysis of the case. Having only the knowledge of 
               the ADEA gained by a human survey class, I was, to say 
               the least, overwhelmed and excited by my supervisor's 
               bold request." 
 
Stage Two:     "This week I helped the legal department match sex and 
Appreciation   race codes with jobs in a number of terminals where the 
               company had business. It was a lot to do, but I knew 
               what I was doing was important, so it made me feel good. 
               I am most fascinated that we can help stop inequality and 
               discrimination going on." 
 
               "It is amazing how many people feel that they are being 
               discriminated against at work. It is even more surprising 
               to see how many companies engage in offensive and 
               potentially discriminatory behavior. I am realizing how 
               important it is to educate people about discrimination 
               and the laws that apply. I feel that the knowledge I 
               gain from this internship will be very beneficial to me 
               in my workplace." 
 
Stage Three:   "Today my supervisor asked me to look at an English-only 
Confidence     rule case. I read over the agency's national origin 
               compliance manual to shape up my knowledge before I 
               looked over the case. I discussed the case with my 
               supervisor and decided that there was not enough 
               information provided by the respondent. Also we need to 
               verify some things with the charging party. It seems that 
               the company did not apply this rule to all the employees. 
               It was apparent that one group was singled out. After I 
               was finished reading it, I believed that there was some 
               sort of violation. It felt good to know that I helped 
               discover this problem." 
 
               "On Wednesday I read through a case about age 
               discrimination. I read through the whole case with all 
               the information gathered by the investigator. My 
               supervisor wanted me to see what I thought needed to be 
               done after this point. I thought there should be some 
               more interviews taken to provide some more evidence and 
               background about the work environment." 
 
               "This week I sat in on another intake interview and 
               worked on case analysis. I was even able to do a 
               telephone interview with one of the charging parties 
               in order to gather more information about her case. 
               I am now able to identify more clearly whether or not a 
               charging party has enough information to pursue a case." 
 
               "This week I seem to be applying everything I have 
               learned thus far from determining the bases and issues, 
               inputting charges, and drafting 291 forms. All of this 
               seems to have helped me further analyze cases. On 
               Wednesday, my supervisor had me analyze a case to create 
               a Request For Information Form in which we needed 
               additional information from the respondent. Doing this 
               has made me question and consider the most critical 
               factors of the case and determine what additional 
               information will be needed to support or deny a case of 
               discrimination. One thing that I have learned is that 
               there are always two sides to a story. Therefore we 
               must rely on information such as written documents, 
               policies, and employee reviews as the determining 
               factors in discrimination cases." 
 
               "This week I was able to write a narrative about my 
               analyses on a case where more men than women were being 
               hired. This case deals with a lot of women who were 
               rejected and many that were not interviewed at all. The 
               analysis I conducted was supposed to determine what a 
               typical hire might be and found that the company hired 
               mostly men with four to five years experience in 
               management or sales. All in all, it seems to be that the 
               women hired are of equal qualifications, but the company 
               intentionally hires more men. It felt awesome to be able 
               to work like an investigator to analyze an important 
               case." 
 
Stage Four:    "I cannot believe some of the cases I have been reading 
Evaluation     because some are such obvious violations. I am learning 
               some things here that I never was aware of concerning 
               discrimination in the workplace." 
 
               "This is an experience that no one could ever forget. 
               Each and every day I learn the proper way to manage a 
               company. It was a wonderful idea for me to take this 
               internship course. It has taught me how responsible 
               companies need to be in their human resource practices." 
 
               "I would like to end my last journal entry by saying I 
               honestly believe that every person aspiring to enter the 
               professional business world should be required to intern 
               at the EEOC. I feel the experience and exposure gained 
               will truly make me a better more competent business 
               professional. I feel that the time spent at the EEOC 
               will be invaluable to my future." 

Figure 1

Progressive Reflection and Learning Stages Depicted in Interns' Journals

Stage One: Awe

* Excitement about potential experiences

* Intellectual interest in assigned tasks

* Intimidation by critical analysis requests

* Reluctance to apply knowledge

Stage Two: Appreciation

* Understanding of the agency's importance

* Awareness of employment discrimination as a pervasive problem

* Appreciation of their roles at the agency

* Eagerness to learn

Stage Three: Confidence

* Increased comfort with mentors and assigned tasks

* Enthusiastic application of knowledge to problems

* Confidence in ability to evaluate claims

* Willingness to make decisions and recommendations

Stage Four: Evaluation

* Reflect upon the internship experience

* Assess the internship's value

* Report increased knowledge of EEO laws and development of human resource management skills

* View course as valuable to future careers

REFERENCES

Bell, J. (1994). Marketing academic internships in the public sector. Public Personnel Management, 23, 481-486.

Buckley, M. R., Wren, D. A., & Michaelsen, L. K. (1992). The role of managerial experience in the management education process: Status, problems, and prospects. Journal of Management Education, 16, 303-313.

Calloway, D., & Beckstead, S. M. (1995). Reconceptualizing internships in management education. Journal of Management Education, 19, 326-341.

Ciafalo, A. (1989). Legitimacy of internships for academic credit remains controversial. Journalism Educator, 43, 25-31.

EEOCa. About the EEOC. .

EEOCb. Enforcement Statistics and Litigation. .

Eyler, J. (1994). Comparing the impact of two internship experiences on student learning. Journal of Cooperative Education, 29, 41-52.

Fitt, D. X., & Heverly, M. (1992). Involving the private sector with higher education. Journal of Cooperative Education, 27, 64-72.

Frazee, V. (1997). Work/study programs give employers a sneak preview. Workforce, 76, 19-20.

Gabris, G., & Mitchell, K. (1989). Exploring the relationship between intern job performance, quality of education experience, and career placement. Public Administration Quarterly, 12, 484-504.

Judy, R. W., & D'Amico, C. (1977). Workforce 2020: Work and workers in the 21st century. Indianapolis: The Hudson Institute.

Kleinschrod, W. (1971). Relevance: The new stress in business training. Administrative Management, 32, 28-29.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

McCormick, D. W. (1993). Critical thinking, experiential learning and internships. Journal of Management Education, 17, 260-262.

Ramsey, V. J., & Couch, P. D. (1994). Beyond self-directed learning: A partnership model of teaching and learning. Journal of Management Education, 18, 139-161.

Sims, R. R., & Lindholm. J. (1993). Koib's experiential learning model: A first step in learning how to learn from experience. Journal of Management Education, 17, 95-98.

Thiel, G. R., & Hartley, N. T. (1997). Cooperative education: A natural synergy between business and academia. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 62, 19-24.

Williams, W. M., Sternberg, R. J., Rashotte, C. A., & Wagner, R. K. (1993). Assessing the value of cooperative education. Journal of Cooperative Education, 28, 32-55.

Woodward, N. H. (1998). From the classroom to the office. HR Magazine, 43, F2-F6.

In addition to her teaching and research responsibilities, Dr. Elkins, who also holds a law degree, has managed an academic internship program with the EEOC for the past eight years. She has published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Academic Internships with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: An Experiential Approach to Teaching Human Resource Management
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.