Poliomyelitis Surveillance and Vaccine Efficacy in Bombay, L982-87

By Kim-Farley, R. J.; Dave, K. H. et al. | Bulletin of the World Health Organization, November-December 1989 | Go to article overview

Poliomyelitis Surveillance and Vaccine Efficacy in Bombay, L982-87


Kim-Farley, R. J., Dave, K. H., Sokhey, J., Mandke, V. B., Bulletin of the World Health Organization


Poliomyelitis surveillance and vaccine efficacy in Bombay, 1982-87

Introduction

A report has previously appeared on poliomyelitis surveillance and vaccine efficacy in Bombay, determined from data in the Annual Reports of the Enterovirus Research Centre (ERC) of the Indian Council of Medical Research for the period 1949-82 [1]. For Greater Bombay, the estimated average efficacy of trivalent oral poliovaccine (OPV) was 86% for the period 1979-81.

In 1985 Bombay was designated as a site for the global "local area monitoring" network of the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), and since then data on population statistics and immunization coverage have been collected from the Public Health Department of the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). Surveillance for poliomyelitis is conducted by the ERC. A description of the local area monitoring programme in Bombay for the period 1974-84 has already appeared [2].

The current OPV immunization schedule for children in Bombay is the same as that used in the rest of India and allows the first dose to be administered to children aged as young as 6 weeks, followed by second and third doses at intervals of at least 4 weeks, respectively, and a supplemental dose at 18 months of age. Prior to 1987 the immunization schedule recommended that OPV be administered to children aged 3, 4, 5, and 18 months.

Here, we present updated poliomyelitis surveillance data for the period 1982-87 that were obtained from the local area monitoring programme and also provide more precise estimates of the effectiveness of OPV in Greater Bombay.

Method

A case of poliomyelitis was defined as a patient who had been diagnosed by a physician to have paralytic poliomyelitis. Patients were considered to be residents of Bombay if their normal address was within Greater Bombay.

To identify cases, the ERC health worker visits at least once each week the four principle hospitals in Bombay that admit children with poliomyelitis: Kasturba Infectious Disease Hospital, B.J. Children's Hospital, J.W. Children's Hospital, and L.T.M.G. Hospital. The ERC also makes efforts to detect cases that are admitted to other public or private hospitals. Periodic visits to the major rehabilitation centre in Bombay helps to detect nonhospitalized cases.

Information on cases is recorded on standardized forms based on data obtained by the ERC health worker from hospital records and by interviewing the parents of patients. The immunization status of patients is obtained from data on immunization cards or records or from parental histories if no records are available.

Poliomyelitis immunization coverage in Bombay is estimated from reports of the number of OPV doses administered and from the results of standard EPI 30-cluster evaluation surveys. (a) Vaccine efficacy (VE) is calculated using the formulata [3, 4]:

VE=(Poliomyelitis attack rate (unimmunized)-Poliomyelitis attack rate (fully immunized))/Poliomyelitis attack rate (unimmunized)

This formula can be modified to determine the VE of multiple does vaccines by including terms for the vaccination status of cases and the population. The resulting formula, which was used to calculate VE in the present study, is given by [5]:

VE=(PPV)(PCU)-(PPU)(PCV)/(PPV)(PCU)

where PCU=proportion of cases unvaccinated against poliomyelitis; PPU=proportion of the population unvaccinated; PCV=proportion of cases vaccinated with the number of doses being examined for vaccine efficacy; and PPV=proportion of the population vaccinated with the number of doses being examined for vaccine efficacy.

The VE was estimated using the case exposure method [4], as follows: by analysing data from all resident cases and assuming that immunization coverage levels for all age groups in a given year are the same as those obtained from the reported number of doses of OPV administered to children aged under 1 year; and by separately analysing data from a subset of cases for the same area, age group, and year for which information was available from an immunization coverage survey. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Poliomyelitis Surveillance and Vaccine Efficacy in Bombay, L982-87
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.