Scholarly Productivity Redefined in Counselor Education. (Professional Development)
Ramsey, MaryLou, Cavallaro, Marion, Kiselica, Mark, Zila, Laurie, Counselor Education and Supervision
In this study, counselor educators responded to a survey about their scholarly productivity over a 3-year period. Their involvement in 7 scholarly activities is reported by category and by type of institution, tenure status, academic rank, and gender. Using a more comprehensive definition of scholarly productivity, this study documents that counselor educators are involved in a much broader, more diversified spectrum of scholarly activities than prior studies of scholarly productivity have indicated. Implications for tenure and promotion decisions, along with recommendations for training and mentoring of future counselor educators as well as future directions for research, are discussed.
Boyer (1990) brought the issue of scholarly productivity to national prominence in the United States in Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Profession, his 1990 landmark report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In this report, Boyer stated that the most important obligation confronting this nation's colleges and universities was to recognize the full range of faculty talent and the great diversity of functions that higher education must perform. For U.S. higher education to remain vital, Boyer concluded that its institutions must define, in more creative ways, what it means to be a scholar. Rice (1991) concurred with Boyer and argued that the contemporary view of scholarship as synonymous with research is not only harmful to universities, faculty, and students but is also a relatively recent perspective that took shape after World War II and the passage of the G.I. Bill of Rights. According to Rice, as post-World War II veterans entered colleges and universities, the demand for faculty increased. As a result, the number of doctorate-granting programs with research as the core of their curriculum grew, and research became the standard for measuring faculty scholarship.
For U.S. education to remain vital now, Boyer (1990) and Rice (1991) concluded that its institutions must define in more creative ways what it means to be a scholar; these trendsetters are not alone in their view. In their survey of more than 23,000 research university faculty, chairs, deans, and administrators, Gray, Froh, and Diamond (1992) found strong agreement that research receives too much emphasis and teaching too little emphasis in higher education. Halpern et al. (1998) also reported widespread support for a multidimensional definition of scholarship reflected in the statements on scholarship by nine disciplinary and professional associations representing 14 academic disciplines that were part of a Syracuse University project that was designed to describe the scholarly and professional work of faculty in their fields.
In response to the need for a more representative definition of scholarly activities in higher education, Boyer (1990) and Halpern et al. (1998) have proposed adoption of a broader definition of scholarship that includes the following separate, yet overlapping, forms of scholarship: (a) original research/discovery, (b) integration (synthesis and reorganization) of knowledge, (c) application of knowledge, and (d) the scholarship of teaching and pedagogy. The repercussions of this redefinition of scholarship and the concomitant need for more appropriate ways of evaluating this type of scholarly productivity in higher education are far-reaching. Decisions on recruitment, reappointment, tenure, salary, and promotion are all influenced by scholarly productivity. Therefore, the ability to define and measure what constitutes scholarly productivity in one's discipline has been and continues to be a constant source of concern and debate in higher education (Hickson, Stacks, & Amsbary, 1992).
Reflective of this continuing academic debate, scholarly productivity in higher education has been studied in a number of ways and from many perspectives. …